AS and A Level: Anatomy & Physiology essays
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185 AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays
- Marked by Teachers essays 1
For the aerobic energy system long distance running would be the sporting or exercising activity. There are three sections in the aerobic system: * Glycolysis * Krebs Cycle * Electron Transport Chain (ETC) Glycolysis is an ATP generating metabolic process that occurs in nearly all living cells in which glucose is converted in a series of steps to pyruvic acid. Krebs cycle is a series of enzymatic reactions in aerobic organisms involving oxidative metabolism of acetyl units and producing high-energy phosphate compounds, which serve as the main source of cellular energy.
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The double S-shape allows the spine to act as a shock absorber. This not only contributes to its role as a protector for the spinal cord but also assists with weight bearing. (Class notes 13/9/2011) The Thoraxes (ribcage) functions are for the protection of main organs such as the heart and lungs and muscle attachment to give the body structure. http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=10323 The Appendicular skeleton mainly forms the extremities of the body their connections to the Axial skeleton. The Appendicular skeleton is made up from the femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, radius, ulna, patella and a few others.
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The first aider should then do a secondary survey this is when they check the patient from head to toe for injuries. Then they should be put in to the recovery positing and wait for the ambulance to arrive. The first aider should put the patient who is unconscious but breathing in to the recovery passion and wait for the ambulance to arrive. Once the patients have recovered and has returned home they both should not return to playing rugby until fully recovered in case of further injury which could be serious.
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The nutritional value of calories consumed influences your overall health. Overall, the number of calories you consume, and the number you expend will determine if you maintain, gain, or lose weight. http://www.ehow.co.uk/how_5627698_calculate-calories-needed-weight.html When we look at designing a healthy eating and exercise plan we need to look at the persons body composition and laboratory methods to do this can be done in two ways Direct measurement - analysis by using chemicals Indirect measurement - by weighing or by simple anthropometry Skinfold method This is when callipers are used to measure fat on different areas of the body.
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On the inbody analyser im going to talk about the female first. 17 year old female 164.0cm Body composition analaysis- the target weight for this person is 57.5 and shes on 56.6 so shes under her target. The total body water target is 30.2kg. The protein weight in the body is 8.1kg, mineral is estimated of 3.00 and body fat mass is 15.3. This create the body weight. Muscle- fat analysis- the weight of this person is 56.6kg. the normal range is 48.8-66.0 kg so she is in the normal range. Skeletal muscle mass (SMM)
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This is because of the valves in the heart that only let the blood go one way. The heart sometimes gets known as a double pump as the right hand side of the heart (deoxygenated blood) is pumped to the lungs and the left hand (oxygenated blood) is pumped to the body. Right hand side. When the heart is relaxed, deoxygenated blood from the body enters the heart via the venae cavae. Then it enters the right atrium. From the right atrium it contracts and pushes blood down through the tricuspid valve and into the right ventricle.
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The purpose of a nutritional assessment is to categorise individuals and evaluate their health, fitness and nutritional status and what behaviours they participate in within their life style. To carry out the assessments a selection of anthropometric meas
tell us about an individual's medical history such as past illnesses, medications being taken and family health history. Personal interviews and screening questionnaires- These allow you to meet the client and allow us to understand the client on a deeper level, as in there current lifestyle and exercise history, so as we know where to start them out, what's suitable for them and what needs to helped/changed in their lifestyle. Socio-economic history Socio-economic history provides information on the clients ethnic/religious background, education, environment, income, cooking skills used, things like shopping facilities and how all these can tell us if they are limited to certain foods or wether the problem of poor food choice is impacted by other factors.
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This happens mostly in the left ventricle as it adapts to the greatest extent there. Also the chamber size is increased as a result of endurance training. In basketball we all know that running is essential. As my basketball player runs faster more blood is being pumped to the heart causing cardiac hypertrophy to occur. For my basketball player his resting heart rate will be decreased as in basketball the players sprinting down and leap around the basket. My basketball player's resting heart rate will recover quicker in low intensity activities and during stoppages because he body system is very active and is able to return back to normal quicker.
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different things and we aren't limited to doing basic things with single movements instead of the vast amount of things we can do. I hope you find this booklet interesting and useful in your sports and understanding. The Skeletal System In the adult skeleton there are 206 bones, these are the 22 main bones: Axial and Appendicular The body is known in two parts. These are known as the axial and appendicular. The axial skeleton is the core of your body: the skull, shoulders, chest, and the spine.
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Gene doping in sport. Gene Doping is the non-therapeutic use of cells, genes, genetic elements, or of the modulation of gene expression, having the capacity to improve athletic performance
Gene doping is as I said very new meaning it is very expensive and difficult to attain where athletes would travel to specialist companies and scientists in countries such as Germany and the USA. But basically it is a technique for correcting defective genes that are responsible for disease development and not for performance enhancement which is what WADA and IOC are trying to say to the athletic world, although some people say gene doping is more acceptable for sporting enhancement rather than drug taking.
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* The pelvis is structured by the left and right Coxae. * The thigh and leg are made up of 5 main sections which are the Femur, which is the thigh, the Tibia, the Patella and the fibula which is the leg. * The feet, which are much like the hands are made out of Tarsals, which is the ankle, the Metatarsals, the Proximal phalanges, the middle phalanged, the distal phalanges and the Sesamoid. Task 2 The skeletons are made out of 5 different types of bones, which are; * The long bones which are the longest in the body, they consist of such bones as the Femur, the Humerus and
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Type 2A fibres are red, they have a very high capacity for generating adenosine triphosphate or ATP by oxidative metabolic processes, they split ATP at a very rapid rate, they have a fast contraction velocity and are resistant to fatigue. Such fibres are infrequently found in humans. The sporting event that is related to type 2A fibres is athletics and the event being 100M sprinting. Type 2B - These fibres, also called fast twitch or fast glycolytic fibres, contain a low content of myoglobin, relatively few mitochondria, relatively few blood capillaries and large amounts glycogen.
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In this assignment I will prepare a report for aimed at young athletes, explaining the effects and implications of using ergogenic aids for exercise and sports performance.
Blood doping therefore allows extra Oxygen to be transported to the working muscles, resulting in a higher level of performance, without the use of the anaerobic energy systems. However, there are also many side effects to blood doping. Re injecting blood can cause many problems. Firstly it can easily cause infection to the athlete which can result in heart problems such as a heart attack. It can also cause blood clots in the body which can be fatal, jaundice which is the skin, eyes and body fluids turning yellow.
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In this assignment I will explain and analyse the initial responses to exercise. It will include how the cardiovascular responses, respiratory responses, neuromuscular responses and the energy systems.
Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped out of the heart in one minute. This is therefore automatically increased when heart rate increases so that more oxygen rich blood can reach the muscles. The fitter a person is, the larger your stroke volume and cardiac output are. Blood pressure is controlled by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. When the body realises it is being exercised in the first few minutes, more blood is forced through the arteries and the shape of these arteries changes.
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Cardiovascular responses When or before exercising, a number of changes happen within the cardiovascular system, these are initial responses.
This happens not only during exercise but also during the period of time before athletes are about to exercise. The anticipatory increase can depend on what the athlete's emotional state is like, this then often affects the athletes true resting heart rate. This causes heart rate to rise in anticipation of exercise. For example, just before the start of a rugby match most of the player's heart rates will increase in anticipation of the match. Stroke volume Stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricles of the heart in one contraction. The stroke volume is not all of the blood contained in the left ventricle because the heart does not pump out all of the blood out.
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The body's response to exercise- Regular aerobic activity results in a type of cardiac hypertrophy (growth). In this case the heart increases in efficiency and size. The wall of the left ventricle thickens, increasing the strength of its contractions. Thi
Stroke volume achieves its maximum amounts at between 40 and 50% of VO2 max. In trained athletes, this usually means 120-140 beats per minute. The biggest increase in stroke volume happens in the transition from rest to moderate exercise. During maximal exercise, stroke volume does not increase from its peak at 120-140 BPM as the left ventricle is at this point already full to capacity. The body tolerate maximal exercise for as long as it can by increasing heart rate and maintaining stroke volume, but the body will tire and fatigue if the demands of the maximal exercise are too great.
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Hydration has a significant effect on sports performance and can determine the success of training sessions or competition.
where a redness of the skin occurs and it is caused by a lack of water being supplied to the surface of the skin, dark coloured urine- this shows that fluid concentration is high and is an obvious sign that fluid levels in the body are low, and one more is chills which is commonly associated with dehydration and shows shivering with paleness and a coldness of the skin. Symptoms are more severe when fluid loss gets to a higher percentage, these symptoms include increased heart rate, increased respiration, decreased sweating and decreased urination etc.
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Therefore Response time is the sum of Reaction time and Movement Time. In sport, the more choices the performer has to make, the slower the response time will be. A simple reaction time is when a performer needs to react to just one stimulus, which means they know what stimulus is coming and they must react to it, therefore a faster reaction time can be achieved. An example of this is going back to my first example of an athletics race, where the performers listen for the sound of the gun to signify the start of the race.
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The cardiovascular system involves the pulsating of the heart and the flow of blood around the body. It works to carry oxygen to the major organs including the muscles and returning the deoxygenated blood to the lungs. The heartbeat, (the rate at which the heart pumps blood around the body,) changes depending on the amount of physical activity. The average person's resting heart rate is between sixty and seventy beats per minute. However, during exercise the pulse rate increases due to a greater demand for energy in the muscles and therefore a greater rate of respiration and a greater need for oxygen is required.
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This will be quite hard to record as nor the athletes nor me have much time to react to the return so I will have to keep a close eye on it. Number of winners created allows the athlete to win points through their own skill rather than through unforced errors. Mean: The most common expression for the mean of a statistical distribution with a discrete random variable is the mathematical average of all the terms. To calculate it, add up the values of all the terms and then divide by the number of terms.
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Larynx The larynx is commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the neck which protects the trachea and the sound production. It is also sometime's called 'Adam's apple'. It controls the volume and pitch. The main function of the larynx is the sound production. The strength from the lungs also contributes to the loudness. It is shaped like a funnel, made of cartilage with a complicated system of different sizes and lengths of muscles. It is usually divided into three sections: sublarynx, larynx, and supralarynx.
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The main causes of this are over eating, resulting in increased energy intake and leading a sedentary lifestyle resulting in decreased energy expenditure. A gaining imbalance results in energy being stored as fat, causing weight gain. Ultimately this can cause obesity, later leading to health problems. Losing imbalance is a result of energy intake being less than what is consumed in external work and other means of energy expenditure. The main cause of this is under-eating or starvation. Energy imbalance, has a huge negative affect upon sporting performance.
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To be healthy you must maintain a balanced diet, there are six components of a balanced diet. The first component I am going to talk about is Carbohydrates, which is a macronutrient along with proteins and fat. Macronutrients are required by our body in daily amounts greater than a few grams. Carbohydrates can be broken down into two main categories; simple and complex. Fizzy drinks, sweet and even fruits contain simple sugars while whole grains (bread), fruits and cereals contain complex carbohydrates.
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We've known about the health risks of smoking for over 50 years, yet 1 in 5 adults still smoke. 22 % of men smoke in the UK, statistics show that a smoker is more likely to be male, a manual worker, between the age of 20 - 24, from an ethnic minority (particularly Bangladeshi), and from the north west of the UK. There are 3 main chemicals in a cigarette, Tar (which can cause cancer), Carbon Monoxide (reduces oxygen levels in the body), and nicotine (addictive substance that increases cholesterol levels). Excess cholesterol caused by smoking narrows blood vessels making blood clots more likely to form.
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The good fats are known as Unsaturated, these come from seeds and oils and tend to be liquid at room temperature. The benefits of these fats are that they don't sit in your arteries, and so don't clog them up. These fats also help protect the body from the bad fats, known as saturated, which tend to be solid at room temperature and come from animal products. The bad fats can build up in the arteries and can cause health problems such as high blood pressure and heart complications.
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