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AS and A Level: Anatomy & Physiology
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For the aerobic energy system long distance running would be the sporting or exercising activity. There are three sections in the aerobic system: * Glycolysis * Krebs Cycle * Electron Transport Chain (ETC) Glycolysis is an ATP generating metabolic process that occurs in nearly all living cells in which glucose is converted in a series of steps to pyruvic acid. Krebs cycle is a series of enzymatic reactions in aerobic organisms involving oxidative metabolism of acetyl units and producing high-energy phosphate compounds, which serve as the main source of cellular energy.
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This is because of the valves in the heart that only let the blood go one way. The heart sometimes gets known as a double pump as the right hand side of the heart (deoxygenated blood) is pumped to the lungs and the left hand (oxygenated blood) is pumped to the body. Right hand side. When the heart is relaxed, deoxygenated blood from the body enters the heart via the venae cavae. Then it enters the right atrium. From the right atrium it contracts and pushes blood down through the tricuspid valve and into the right ventricle.
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This happens mostly in the left ventricle as it adapts to the greatest extent there. Also the chamber size is increased as a result of endurance training. In basketball we all know that running is essential. As my basketball player runs faster more blood is being pumped to the heart causing cardiac hypertrophy to occur. For my basketball player his resting heart rate will be decreased as in basketball the players sprinting down and leap around the basket. My basketball player's resting heart rate will recover quicker in low intensity activities and during stoppages because he body system is very active and is able to return back to normal quicker.
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* The pelvis is structured by the left and right Coxae. * The thigh and leg are made up of 5 main sections which are the Femur, which is the thigh, the Tibia, the Patella and the fibula which is the leg. * The feet, which are much like the hands are made out of Tarsals, which is the ankle, the Metatarsals, the Proximal phalanges, the middle phalanged, the distal phalanges and the Sesamoid. Task 2 The skeletons are made out of 5 different types of bones, which are; * The long bones which are the longest in the body, they consist of such bones as the Femur, the Humerus and
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Therefore Response time is the sum of Reaction time and Movement Time. In sport, the more choices the performer has to make, the slower the response time will be. A simple reaction time is when a performer needs to react to just one stimulus, which means they know what stimulus is coming and they must react to it, therefore a faster reaction time can be achieved. An example of this is going back to my first example of an athletics race, where the performers listen for the sound of the gun to signify the start of the race.
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The main causes of this are over eating, resulting in increased energy intake and leading a sedentary lifestyle resulting in decreased energy expenditure. A gaining imbalance results in energy being stored as fat, causing weight gain. Ultimately this can cause obesity, later leading to health problems. Losing imbalance is a result of energy intake being less than what is consumed in external work and other means of energy expenditure. The main cause of this is under-eating or starvation. Energy imbalance, has a huge negative affect upon sporting performance.
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The major bones of the human body are very important and have major functions E.g. The vertebrae column allows us to bend, stretch and rotate our body without it we could not move in these ways. Below is a labeled diagram of the skeletal system. Picture reference - www.google.images.co.uk Body in Action There are different types of joints in the human body, joints are the place where two place meet. The joints hold your bones together and allow your rigid skeleton to move. Ball and socket joints a very mobile joint in the body, like your hip and shoulder joints, this joint allows you to swing your arms and legs in many different positions.
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An important part of maintaining energy balance is the amount of physical activity that you do. People, who are physically active, burn more calories than people who are not as physically active. A sports person would want to be in balance when they are at their normal training day and not looking so massive gains. This is mainly referring to any sports person who wants to stay at their optimum weight. When they would want to make massive gains in their training they would want to be at a negative energy balance so they are giving out more calories than taking in.
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Diet plan for an athlete. In my athletes diet plan I have included a high amount of carbohydrates this is because a sufficient amount of energy
Red kidney beans, chick peas and fat-free dressing. Serve with salad and 1 wholemeal bread roll. French bread with 2 slices ham, salad, Plus 1 small yoghurt. Grilled chicken and salad sandwich Mussels, boiled potatoes and mixed vegetables Tuna pasta Jacket potato with baked beans and cheese Grilled salmon and salad tortilla wrap Snack Packet of mixed nuts Isotonic drink Fruit loaf Protein bar Banana smoothie Apple and a pear Packet of mixed nuts Protein bar Tea Tortilla wraps with mayonnaise and grilled chicken 1 lean loin lamb chop served with 1 jacket potato, vegetables Spaghetti Bolognese Roast chicken with
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Hydration and Sports Performance Signs and symptoms Water is the most important nutrient, particularly for athletes this is because water is 85% of the body
Heat exhaustion Heat exhaustion is where the body loses its ability to cool down efficiently. Normally, the body cools itself by sweating. But if you are exposed to high temperatures for a long time and don't replace the fluids you lose, the body systems that regulate temperature become overwhelmed. The athlete's skin will feel moist and clammy they will have a fast, weak pulse and shallow breathing, they may look pale and feel weak and dizzy. Hyponatraemia Hyponatraemia is a result of an overhydrating in the body.
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Carbohydrates adds calories (energy), they provide valuable vitamins, minerals and fibre, and they ensure that muscle recovery is swift and effective following training.
There are 3 types of carbohydrate; Polysaccharides take time to be broken down and give a steady release of energy, these are complex and the largest of the carbohydrates They are made from long chains of single sugar units called monosaccharides.
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the working muscle * increase flow of blood from the heart * increase rate and depth of breathing * increase unloading of oxygen from haemoglobin in working muscle ?Increase in waste products produced by the muscle. ?Rise in muscle temperature. ?A break down in muscle tissue. ?More muscle fibres contract ?Muscles increase in size (hypertrophy). Hypertrophy is the increase of a size or organ. The most common type of organ hypertrophy occurs in the skeletal muscle. ?Muscles become stronger. The more you exercise the stronger your muscles will become.
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Basically a footballer's diet should be 2/3 from carbohydrates and 1/3 from protein, with an emphasis on moderate fat. Footballers increase the amount of carbohydrates in their diet as it provides them with more available energy during training sessions and games. Also players tend to avoid fried foods because it can often cause upset stomachs, avoiding these foods tend to also boost performance. Fitness Fitness physical refers to capacity of an athlete to meet the varied physical demands of their sport without reducing the athlete to a fatigue state. In football, players need all different types of psycho-motor skills, they include the following: 1)
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In the future it may be possible to treat patients with muscle disorders by genetic medicines that will improve their muscle strength. Studies have also been conducted to speed up wound healing and to reduce muscular soreness after exercise, a practice that might not be considered as 'therapeutic' by everybody and their performance enhancement properties might be questionable. As well as gene doping there is also Gene therapy which works by inserting extra copies of particular genes into the body.
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prehistoric times men would have to catch food by running after there prey, The skeleton would evolve to make the legs longer resulting in the men running faster. http://www.colganinstitute.com/CI_Photos/CI_Skeleton1.gif Different shapes of the skeleton help with different sports. There are 3 different types: Mesomorph As you can see a person that is a mesomorph is strong and muscular and a medium height. These suit types of sport like sprinting or swimming this is because these sport use power in their muscles which mesomorphs usually have.
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The stroke volume is the volume of blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction. The same as the heart rate the stroke volume also increases depending on the intensity of the exercise taking place. Stroke volume is able to increase for two reasons: * Increased venous return - this is the volume of blood that returns from the body to the right side of the heart. * The frank starling mechanism Cardiac output is the volume of blood pumped out of the heart per minute and is the product of stroke volume and heart rate.
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An example of an irregular bone is the Patella or vertebrae. The vertebral column also is a very vital part to our body as it supports our body, allowing us to stand up, bend flex and twist. There are 5 sections to the vertebral column. The cervical, which consists of 7 vertebrae. These are the smallest vertebrae and are found in the neck. Then there is the Thoracic. This consists of 12 vertebrae. The 12 pairs of ribs join on to the thoracic vertebrae.
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1) ___________________________________ 2) ___________________________________ 3) ___________________________________ (2) All physical activity requires movement using bones and muscles. (i) Name three major bones which are located in the leg.
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open Shoulders open and free, hanging arms with space under the armpits Head lightly balancing on the top of the spine not tipped forward or back 5) Without good body and spinal alignment breathing isn't as efficient and the voice will collapse. Good alignment opens the voice and creates more resonance. 6) To develop awareness of habitual alignment you could use mirrors, arranging then in such a way that you can get a good full length view of yourself from the front and the sides.
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Symptoms - restriction of movement, bruising, swelling, pain Concussion Cause - A concussion is typically caused by a severe head trauma where the brain moves violently within the skull so that brain cells all fire at once Symptoms - Memory loss, unconsciousness, Clear or reddish fluid draining from the ears, nose or mouth, Unequal size pupils Muscle Cramps Cause - inadequate stretching and muscle fatigue, exercising or working in intense heat, dehydration and depletion of salt and minerals. Symptoms - Twitching severe pain muscle distortion beneath the skin.
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Subject A (female) Emma holder Tidal Volume = 23mm (average) this is due to the fact that hear tidal volumes where of mixed length so I thought it would be best to get the mean. Inspiratory reserve volume = 11 mm Expiratory reserve volume = 30 mm The percentage of the vital capacity the tidal volume represents = 37% Subject B (Male) Andy Tidal volume - 4 units Inspiratory reserve volume - 14 units Expiratory reserve volume - 6 units The percentage of the vital capacity the tidal volume represents - 20% Subject C (male)
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Effects of exercise We can exercise to have different effects on the body, some long term and others short term
Cardiovascular and Respiratory system Long term effects; * The diaphragm and intercostals muscles become stronger which increases the maximum lung volume ( vital capacity ) * This allows greater gas exchange with each breath * There is an increase in the size of capillary networks around the alveoli which means there is an increased blood supply and more efficient gas exchange * Resting heart rate is lower * The heart strengthens * Resting stroke volume increases * cardiac output increases * tidal volume increases * more red blood
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The arm also needs speed so that the javelin can be pulled through quickly, giving a momentum to also combine with strength to create power. The power then applies a force onto the javelin. Agility: This is the ability to change direction quickly, efficiently, accurately, and combining speed with balance, power and coordination. Agility is important to throwing the javelin. The body needs to change direction 900 at the torso. Speed is needed (as above) which needs balance so that the force of throwing the javelin travels through the point.
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Thus, muscle, fiber, and myofibrils change lengths, but not myofilaments. Processes of Muscle Contraction: 1. Nerve impulse moves down T-tubule depolarizing the tubules. 2. Ca++ is released from the lateral sacks of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum into the Sarcomere among the Myofilaments.
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