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AS and A Level: Anatomy & Physiology

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  1. Health screening questionnaire and muscle analysis of two individuals

    On the inbody analyser im going to talk about the female first. 17 year old female 164.0cm Body composition analaysis- the target weight for this person is 57.5 and shes on 56.6 so shes under her target. The total body water target is 30.2kg. The protein weight in the body is 8.1kg, mineral is estimated of 3.00 and body fat mass is 15.3. This create the body weight. Muscle- fat analysis- the weight of this person is 56.6kg. the normal range is 48.8-66.0 kg so she is in the normal range. Skeletal muscle mass (SMM)

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  2. The body during sport and exercise

    different things and we aren't limited to doing basic things with single movements instead of the vast amount of things we can do. I hope you find this booklet interesting and useful in your sports and understanding. The Skeletal System In the adult skeleton there are 206 bones, these are the 22 main bones: Axial and Appendicular The body is known in two parts. These are known as the axial and appendicular. The axial skeleton is the core of your body: the skull, shoulders, chest, and the spine.

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  3. Gene doping in sport. Gene Doping is the non-therapeutic use of cells, genes, genetic elements, or of the modulation of gene expression, having the capacity to improve athletic performance

    Gene doping is as I said very new meaning it is very expensive and difficult to attain where athletes would travel to specialist companies and scientists in countries such as Germany and the USA. But basically it is a technique for correcting defective genes that are responsible for disease development and not for performance enhancement which is what WADA and IOC are trying to say to the athletic world, although some people say gene doping is more acceptable for sporting enhancement rather than drug taking.

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  4. The Body In Action Assignment. Muscles and the effects of exercise.

    Type 2A fibres are red, they have a very high capacity for generating adenosine triphosphate or ATP by oxidative metabolic processes, they split ATP at a very rapid rate, they have a fast contraction velocity and are resistant to fatigue. Such fibres are infrequently found in humans. The sporting event that is related to type 2A fibres is athletics and the event being 100M sprinting. Type 2B - These fibres, also called fast twitch or fast glycolytic fibres, contain a low content of myoglobin, relatively few mitochondria, relatively few blood capillaries and large amounts glycogen.

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  5. In this assignment I will prepare a report for aimed at young athletes, explaining the effects and implications of using ergogenic aids for exercise and sports performance.

    Blood doping therefore allows extra Oxygen to be transported to the working muscles, resulting in a higher level of performance, without the use of the anaerobic energy systems. However, there are also many side effects to blood doping. Re injecting blood can cause many problems. Firstly it can easily cause infection to the athlete which can result in heart problems such as a heart attack. It can also cause blood clots in the body which can be fatal, jaundice which is the skin, eyes and body fluids turning yellow.

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  6. In this assignment I will explain and analyse the initial responses to exercise. It will include how the cardiovascular responses, respiratory responses, neuromuscular responses and the energy systems.

    Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped out of the heart in one minute. This is therefore automatically increased when heart rate increases so that more oxygen rich blood can reach the muscles. The fitter a person is, the larger your stroke volume and cardiac output are. Blood pressure is controlled by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. When the body realises it is being exercised in the first few minutes, more blood is forced through the arteries and the shape of these arteries changes.

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  7. Hydration has a significant effect on sports performance and can determine the success of training sessions or competition.

    where a redness of the skin occurs and it is caused by a lack of water being supplied to the surface of the skin, dark coloured urine- this shows that fluid concentration is high and is an obvious sign that fluid levels in the body are low, and one more is chills which is commonly associated with dehydration and shows shivering with paleness and a coldness of the skin. Symptoms are more severe when fluid loss gets to a higher percentage, these symptoms include increased heart rate, increased respiration, decreased sweating and decreased urination etc.

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  8. The Long and Short Term Effects of Exercise

    The cardiovascular system involves the pulsating of the heart and the flow of blood around the body. It works to carry oxygen to the major organs including the muscles and returning the deoxygenated blood to the lungs. The heartbeat, (the rate at which the heart pumps blood around the body,) changes depending on the amount of physical activity. The average person's resting heart rate is between sixty and seventy beats per minute. However, during exercise the pulse rate increases due to a greater demand for energy in the muscles and therefore a greater rate of respiration and a greater need for oxygen is required.

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  9. Biomechanics Assignment 2

    This will be quite hard to record as nor the athletes nor me have much time to react to the return so I will have to keep a close eye on it. Number of winners created allows the athlete to win points through their own skill rather than through unforced errors. Mean: The most common expression for the mean of a statistical distribution with a discrete random variable is the mathematical average of all the terms. To calculate it, add up the values of all the terms and then divide by the number of terms.

    • Word count: 1416
  10. Respiratory system

    Larynx The larynx is commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the neck which protects the trachea and the sound production. It is also sometime's called 'Adam's apple'. It controls the volume and pitch. The main function of the larynx is the sound production. The strength from the lungs also contributes to the loudness. It is shaped like a funnel, made of cartilage with a complicated system of different sizes and lengths of muscles. It is usually divided into three sections: sublarynx, larynx, and supralarynx.

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  11. Nutrition and Digestion

    To be healthy you must maintain a balanced diet, there are six components of a balanced diet. The first component I am going to talk about is Carbohydrates, which is a macronutrient along with proteins and fat. Macronutrients are required by our body in daily amounts greater than a few grams. Carbohydrates can be broken down into two main categories; simple and complex. Fizzy drinks, sweet and even fruits contain simple sugars while whole grains (bread), fruits and cereals contain complex carbohydrates.

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  12. Lifestyle Factors

    We've known about the health risks of smoking for over 50 years, yet 1 in 5 adults still smoke. 22 % of men smoke in the UK, statistics show that a smoker is more likely to be male, a manual worker, between the age of 20 - 24, from an ethnic minority (particularly Bangladeshi), and from the north west of the UK. There are 3 main chemicals in a cigarette, Tar (which can cause cancer), Carbon Monoxide (reduces oxygen levels in the body), and nicotine (addictive substance that increases cholesterol levels). Excess cholesterol caused by smoking narrows blood vessels making blood clots more likely to form.

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  13. Sport nutrition: Fat

    The good fats are known as Unsaturated, these come from seeds and oils and tend to be liquid at room temperature. The benefits of these fats are that they don't sit in your arteries, and so don't clog them up. These fats also help protect the body from the bad fats, known as saturated, which tend to be solid at room temperature and come from animal products. The bad fats can build up in the arteries and can cause health problems such as high blood pressure and heart complications.

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  14. Joint Classifications

    The final of the three joint classifications is the movable joints, also known as the synovial joints. The synovial joints make up most of the joints in the body and, they usually give the highest range of movement. The reason the movable joints are referred to as synovial joints is; the fact that in these types of joint, there is a sack which slowly secretes the synovial fluid to reduce friction between the two layers of articular/hyaline cartilage at either end of epiphysis in the joint. The synovial joints have six sub-classifications. The first of these sub-classifications is the ball and socket joint; this joint provides the highest range of movement and is found at the shoulders and hips.

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  15. Sport Science - Sports Injuries Task 3

    * Rest the injury initially, and then re-introduce movement so you don't lose too much muscle strength. * Ice should be applied to your ankle to reduce swelling and bruising. You should not apply ice directly to your skin as it can give you an "ice burn" - place a cloth between the ice and skin. * Compress your ankle by bandaging it to support the injury and help decrease swelling. * Elevate your ankle by resting your foot above the level of your heart and keep it supported. Example #1 Ankle Sprain: * An ankle sprain is a generic term for over exertion of the muscles, tendons ligaments and nerves surrounding the ankle.

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  16. Physiology - muscles and joints. Different types and their use in sports.

    Agonist and antagonist both have to work together to product the desired action. The role of the muscles is to stabilise the organs so that the agonist can produce the most effective contraction. To raise the upper arm, the anterior and poster parts of the deltoid muscle balance each other while the fibres in the middle of the muscle contracts to pull the arm upwards. The teres major muscle, which connects the scapula, relaxes to allow the movement. Sometimes stabilizing muscle also play a role in this coordinated muscle action. Joint types There are 9 different types of joints in the body.

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  17. Hydration and Sports Performance. Conditions caused by lack of fluids

    An example of muscle cramps occurring during exercise is when footballers go into extra time during competitive games. Many footballers go experience cramp during extra time of a match because they are exceeding the amount of time they usually play for and are loosing more fluids than what the body is used to. To over come cramp they need to stretch out their muscles and hydrate themselves to replace the lost fluids and salts. Heat exhaustion Heat exhaustion is where the body loses its ability to cool down efficiently.

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  18. Energy intake and expenditure. Nutrition needs of a fooballer and long distance runner.

    There should be at least 5 servings of fruit & vegetables each day - necessary for preventing illness, building muscles and repairing injury. Pre - Before a match or training a footballer should be eating food that can be broken down easily so energy requirement can be met. Extra carbohydrates and fluids should be taken on 24 hours prior to the match. The last meal should be eaten 3-4 hours before the match and this should be a meal such as pasta with a tomato-based sauce with chicken.

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  19. The energy system Our bodies need a supply of energy to enable it to carry out the functions to live. These functions can be digesting food to live and avoid starving to death, performing muscular contractions to do everyday life such as eating or exerci

    The food types that contain energy in form of kilocalories (kcals) are , carbohydrates 1 gram gives 4 kcals, protein 1g gives 4 kcals and fat that provides the body with the highest kcals, at around 1g gives 9 kcals.Adenosine triphosphate is made of 1 adenosine molecule attached to 3 phosphate molecules. Thee molecules are bound together by high energy bonds. The energy bonds contain the energy and therefore to free the energy we need to break down the bonds attaching the molecules. In order to break one of the bonds we need an enzyme called ATPase.When the ATP has being broken down we are then left with a second compound called adenosine diphosphate or ADP.Resulting with a loose phosphate in the process.

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  20. Sport injuries Understand how common sport injuries can be prevented by the correct identification of risk factors

    Another risk is pushy coaches making Participants pushed, and even made to play through the pain barrier an example of this is Andre Agassi used to have a tennis racket taped to his hand when he was just 2 years old. Using good technique in sport is beneficial because it promotes high performance and reduces the risk of injury. Players need to develop the skills necessary to perform the movements of their sport correctly. If players learn and use incorrect techniques they may at first perform well but they are placing themselves at increased risk of both acute and chronic injury that will reduce their ability to perform.

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  21. Gender, Exercise and Sporting Performance

    Males tend to have greater muscle mass and lower fat mass compared with females. A high percentage of body fat is not always a hindrance in sport. As females have a greater percentage of fat than males they are more buoyant (muscle mass weighs much more than body fat) so they use up less energy than males staying afloat. Therefore using the same amount of energy females will be able to swim faster than males. This together with the increased insulation from the cold makes females more suited to open-water swimming such as swimming the channel.

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  22. Biological Chemicals

    Carbohydrates are used to create glucose which can be used right away or stored to use later. Carbohydrates are broken into two categories, simple and complex. Sugars fall into the simple category, while starches and fibres are complex carbohydrates. Carbohydrate molecules range from monosaccharide (single unit such as glucose) to disaccharides (two units such as sucrose) to polysaccharides (long chains, including starches, glycogen, fibres) Monosaccharide Monosaccharide is the simplest form of Carbohydrate. It contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (C6H12O6). Each molecule has twice as much hydrogen as carbon.

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  23. The Skeletal System

    These are: - Long: longer than they are wide. (e.g. the femur and the humerous) - Short: as wide as they are long (e.g. the carpals and tarsals) - Flat: flat and protect another structure (e.g scapula and ribs) - Irregular: no common characteristics (e.g the vertebrae) - Sesamoid: contained within a tendon (e.g. the patella and in the sole of the foot) Within these types of bones, there are also 2 types of boney material; these are called cancellous bone and compact bone. Cancellous bone is mainly for red cell production. It is soft and spongy with low density and a high surface area. Compact bone is strong and stops bone crumpling under pressure.

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  24. The Muscular System

    spinae Extension of vertebrae Gymnastics Teres major Medial rotation of shoulder Rowing Trapezius Upper: adducts and rotates scapula, laterally flexes neck and head. Middle: adducts and elevates scapula. Lower: rotates scapula Holding head up in rugby scrum Latissimus dorsi Adduction of humerus Butterfly stroke in swimming Obliques Flex and rotate upper body Throwing Gluteus maximus Extension of hip and laterally rotates femur Pulling leg back before kicking a ball These are the origin and insertions of all the major muscles: Muscle Origin Insertion Biceps Scapula Radius Triceps Humerus/scapula Ulna Deltoids Clavicle/scapula Humerus Pectoralis major Clavicle/sternum Humerus Rectus femoris Femur/illium Patella

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  25. impacts of exercise essay

    A third injury you can get is tennis elbow which is inflammation of the tendons which connect wrist and finger extensors to the outer part of the arm just above the elbow. This is a type of injury that can be cause by overtraining in tennis. You can also get shin splints which is an irritation of the muscle insertion in front of the shin bone (tibia). This can be caused by repeated foot impact on a hard surface for example basketball where the player goes to jump for a rebound or slam dunk repeatedly during a game or training session.

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Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?

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