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AS and A Level: Anatomy & Physiology

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  1. Nutrition and Hydration. Energy Intake and Expenditure In Sports Performance

    The nutritional value of calories consumed influences your overall health. Overall, the number of calories you consume, and the number you expend will determine if you maintain, gain, or lose weight. http://www.ehow.co.uk/how_5627698_calculate-calories-needed-weight.html When we look at designing a healthy eating and exercise plan we need to look at the persons body composition and laboratory methods to do this can be done in two ways Direct measurement - analysis by using chemicals Indirect measurement - by weighing or by simple anthropometry Skinfold method This is when callipers are used to measure fat on different areas of the body.

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  2. The purpose of a nutritional assessment is to categorise individuals and evaluate their health, fitness and nutritional status and what behaviours they participate in within their life style. To carry out the assessments a selection of anthropometric meas

    tell us about an individual's medical history such as past illnesses, medications being taken and family health history. Personal interviews and screening questionnaires- These allow you to meet the client and allow us to understand the client on a deeper level, as in there current lifestyle and exercise history, so as we know where to start them out, what's suitable for them and what needs to helped/changed in their lifestyle. Socio-economic history Socio-economic history provides information on the clients ethnic/religious background, education, environment, income, cooking skills used, things like shopping facilities and how all these can tell us if they are limited to certain foods or wether the problem of poor food choice is impacted by other factors.

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  3. Cardiovascular responses When or before exercising, a number of changes happen within the cardiovascular system, these are initial responses.

    This happens not only during exercise but also during the period of time before athletes are about to exercise. The anticipatory increase can depend on what the athlete's emotional state is like, this then often affects the athletes true resting heart rate. This causes heart rate to rise in anticipation of exercise. For example, just before the start of a rugby match most of the player's heart rates will increase in anticipation of the match. Stroke volume Stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricles of the heart in one contraction. The stroke volume is not all of the blood contained in the left ventricle because the heart does not pump out all of the blood out.

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  4. Btec sport, skeletal system

    5. Storage of minerals Bones serve as a storage area for minerals such as calcium and phosphorus. When an excess is present in the blood, build-up will occur within the bones. When the supply of these minerals within the blood is low, it will be withdrawn from the bones to replenish the supply. The human skeleton is divided into two distinct parts: Axial Skeleton The axial skeleton, making up 80 of your 206 bones, encompasses all your upper body bones. It is subdivided into three groups: the skull, the vertebral-sound column, and the bony thorax-sound.

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  5. Effects of hydration levels on an athlete's performance

    * Skin Flushing- this is where a redness of the skin occurs and it is caused by a lack of water being supplied to the surface of the skin. * Dark Coloured Urine- this shows that fluid concentration is high and is an obvious sign that fluid levels in the body are low. * Dry Mouth- this is scientifically known as Xerostomia and is caused by a lack of saliva in the mouth and throat and shows that the mucus membranes are drying out.

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  6. Skeletal Systems

    Sesamoid bones-They are specialised bones that assist joint movement and these are covered with articular cartilage. There are two parts to the skeletal system which some people are yet to know but they are called the AXIAL and APPENDICULAR Skeleton. In fig.1 this shows the full skeleton and the areas shaded in blue is the axial skeleton and the areas shaded in red are the appendicular skeleton. The bones included in the skeleton are: from head to toe: Cranium/skull (flat bone/irregular bone)-this part of the head is used to house the organ called the brain. This is a very hard and durable bone and is vital to the bodies' survival as it hold a very important organ.

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  7. Extrinsic injury risk factors

    This is where the help of a coach can be invaluable in planning a training programme. If your sport or activity involves impact (running, jumping, etc.) then wearing appropriate footwear and exercising on a suitable surface are extremely important of the impact force going through the body is to be kept to a minimum. The most appropriate footwear will often depend upon your gait and joint mechanics, since someone who has excessive pronation, for example, has different footwear needs to someone who does not. Furthermore, the shock absorption, stability and support characteristics required of sports footwear will differ according to sport, technique and bodyweight.

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  8. Bones constitute on important part in "The Bonesetter's Daughter". What is the significance of the book's title?

    Since most of the book is mostly feminine based, it should, naturally, have a more feminine title. Before reading the book we are told that this story is about a girl or a woman and perhaps her father. However, we are not told about the bonesetter's daughter until page 155. This is telling us something. We thought that the main character in this book had to be the bonesetter's daughter. We now find out that this is perhaps not so and that it will be difficult to pin point the main character in this book. The main difficulty is within the fact that this book has no immediate plot.

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  9. The Effects of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoporosis has on Exercise and the workings of a Boxing Jab.

    The joints are a major factor when performing movement because the joints hold the bone together securely but also give the rigid skeleton mobility. All of these systems work together to form movements (voluntary or involuntary) such as adduction, abduction, circumduction, rotation, flexion, extension for example. The two skeletal disorders which are going to be discussed in this essay are Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoporosis as these disorders limit the movement which leads to hindering exercise participation. Also these diseases mainly occur more in adult females than adult males.

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  10. The Structure of Skeletal Muscle.

    This provides the energy which produces a swivelling action, pulling the actin filaments closer to the centre of the sarcomere - overall, making the muscle shorten. The ATPase site on the myosin cross-bridge must pick up another ATP molecule if it is to repeat the swivelling action further. A full muscular contraction requires many repeated 'splittings' of ATP throughout the sarcomeres. The illustration on the top of next page shows the sliding filament theory and what it looks like during muscular contraction.

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  11. The Roman period - woodcraft.

    The joints were not made, however, to withstand all three of these stresses at the same time. The saddle joint is a frequently used joint because it is one of the simplest. This joint is done by making matching, opposing notches in two pieces so they can be joined at a ninety degree angle. This saddle joint was made to withstand longitudinal tension and compression, and does not require any external forces to keep it compact so that the notch would hold together without the use of wooden pegs or other connection device. This notch can be compared to a notch used in more recent times in the building of log structures.

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  12. Muscles and Joints.

    The radius and the ulna have ends, which are hollow and can fit into bones of the wrist. * The hinge joint, is just replica of the movement a hinge on a door. It can swing back and forward. Part of the bone becomes hollow. The joint will go back and forth. An example would be the elbow. The knee This is combined of the thigh bone (femur) muscle knee cap (patella). They also have fibula and tibia. The cartilage and ligaments holds the bones together. The cartilage is found in other parts of the body and used to protect the organs.

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  13. Aerobic power/cardio-vascular endurance.

    see and high percentage of their time on the field they are either running at high speed or sprinting which obviously requires anaerobic power speed. Although football players must be able to endure high speeds and sprinting for quite long periods of time; which requires fast twitch muscles, yet there are two types of fast twitch muscle: fast twitch glycolitic muscle fibres (FTG) and fast oxidative glycolitic muscle fibres (FOG). Footballers and most team sport players will have the greatest advantage with FOGs because these tale the best points from fast twitch glycolitic muscle fibres (such as long fast firing motor neurons, ATPase for rapid production of ATP for energy, and large muscle fibre width)

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  14. Physical Fitness in sports.

    SPEED The maximum rate at which we can move our bodies, speed is the distance moved per second. BODY COMPOSITION The relative percentage of muscle, fat and bone on our bodies. Body composition can be on indication to how physically fit a person is. Motor Fitness Components AGILITY The ability of a person to perform coordinated and smooth movements with balance and precision. BALANCE The ability to maintain the centre of mass of the body without support. Static balance is maintaining balance in a fixed position.

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  15. Appraisal of a shoulder injury.

    The shoulder joint offers a wide range of movement and mobility to the arm as shown in figure 1.2 over. Figure 1.2 movements at the shoulder joint However this wide range of movement leads to the decrease in stability, with the shoulder mainly being stabilised by muscles, ligaments and tendons any damage to these can result in the stability of the shoulder being compromised and can lead to a number of injuries including dislocation. 2.Dislocation of the shoulder A dislocation is termed as the bones of a joint coming out of their normal alignment Marieb (1998).

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  16. Anatomy and Physiology.

    It is also the structure to which muscles are fixed. The human skeleton changes throughout life. It develops from two types of cells, either mesoderm cells or neural crest cells. The parts of the skeleton that develop from mesoderm cells include: the skull; the vertebral column; appendicular skeleton and ribs. However the bones of the face develop from neural crest cells. The Process of Ossification Ossification is the term used for the growth or formation of bone, and there are two types of ossification - intramembranous and endochondral bone formation.

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  17. Osteoarthritis.

    and complications. (Gordon, 1993:7) OA and rheumatoid arthritis are the two most common types. Arthritis in all its forms, is responsible for the chronic disability of millions of people worldwide, over the age of twenty-five. It affects one person in four over the age of 65 and one person in 10 develops symptoms requiring treatment. Although a change in eating habits and lifestyle will assist those with rheumatoid arthritis, OA sufferers have different measures to consider. (Porter 1993:7) What is Osteoarthritis? OA has the distinction of being the oldest and most prevalent chronic disease known to humanity.

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  18. Identify and justify the key components of fitness.

    Being flexible helps increase speed and so more flexible players generally have the pace to get to a ball in space as there joints allow more movement to extend. Strength - This is generally a force against a resistance. There are three main types of strength, maximum strength, which is maximum strength your body can exert in a single contraction. Elastic strength is an explosive action like sprinting which a high level of fast twitch fibres are needed as they contract faster than slow oxidative fibres, and finally strength endurance the ability for muscles to keep contracting without getting fatigued.

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  19. I am going to investigate the relationship between the size of our biceps muscle and how strong those make are grip.

    These are muscles that are attached to bones and are used to move the body. Skeletal muscles can contract powerfully, but get tired easily. They are also controlled by the conscious brain, so you have to decide to run to catch a bus or pick up a cup of coffee. Another groups of muscles are the smooth muscles of the gut. These muscles contract very powerfully, but do not tire easily and can stay contracted for long periods of time. They are not attached to bones and are not under conscious control. A third kind of muscle is only found in the heart and is called cardiac muscle.

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  20. Weight training programme for a hockey midfield player.

    There is little movement of limb, but considerable internal forces are being exerted against relatively immobile objects. For example static strength is used in a rugby scrum. Cardiorespiratory endurance is the ability of the heart and lung system to cope with activity and work over a long period of time. This will be useful for a hockey player to have because they are constantly working so the lungs and heart need to be efficient and need to work hard and deliver the body with sufficient oxygen. To start the session off I will do a warm up.

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  21. Flexibility Practical

    -The elasticity of muscle tissue (muscle tissue that is scarred due to previous injury is not very elastic). -The ability of a muscle to relax and contract to achieve the greatest range of motion. -The temperature of the joint and associated tissues (joints and muscles offer better flexibility at body temperatures that are 1 to 2 degrees higher than normal). * External influences: -The temperature of the place where one is training (a warmer temperature is more conducive to increased flexibility). -The time of day (most people are more flexible in the afternoon than in the morning, peaking from about 2.30pm-4pm).

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  22. Describe the attachment of muscles and how they produce movement and provide support.

    Cell junctions do not join skeletal muscle fibres. The endomysium consists of the basal lamina and thin connective tissue that surround individual muscle cells junctions. The perimysium consists of sheets of connective tissue which separate the fibres into groups known as fascicles. PIC 1 The epimysium surrounds the groups of fascicles that contain the muscle. Skeleton muscle is innervated and highly vascularised, due to its high energy needs, by penetration into the epimysium with branches into the peri- and endomysium. Connective tissue transmits the mechanical force of muscle.

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  23. Anatomy For BTEC Sport - bones and muscles.

    it is the main part which makes the body's nervous system because without the nervous system the human body wouldn't be alive due to all the information processed is done in the brain and all movement is decide and told to be carried out by the brain. The cranium is the structure of flat bones which is also well known as the skull. The skull is an extremely important part of the skeletal system because it protects the brain from damage and injury.

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  24. Symptoms and Dangers of Sports-Related Concussions.

    During a concussion, the brain rattles around inside the skull. When that happens, the brain cells are affected and the severity depends on how strong the force was that shook the athlete?s brain. In some instances, an athlete may undergo continuous headaches for about a week or so, blurred vision, awful balance, or difficulty in concentration (Sports Related Concussion). In other cases, an athlete may experience permanent damage in his/her information processing pace, problem solving, memory, and planning (Sports Related Concussions).

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Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?

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