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AS and A Level: Anatomy & Physiology

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 1
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  1. The body's response to exercise- Regular aerobic activity results in a type of cardiac hypertrophy (growth). In this case the heart increases in efficiency and size. The wall of the left ventricle thickens, increasing the strength of its contractions. Thi

    Stroke volume achieves its maximum amounts at between 40 and 50% of VO2 max. In trained athletes, this usually means 120-140 beats per minute. The biggest increase in stroke volume happens in the transition from rest to moderate exercise. During maximal exercise, stroke volume does not increase from its peak at 120-140 BPM as the left ventricle is at this point already full to capacity. The body tolerate maximal exercise for as long as it can by increasing heart rate and maintaining stroke volume, but the body will tire and fatigue if the demands of the maximal exercise are too great.

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  2. The skeletal systems relative to Sport and exercise actions

    The openings leading into these organs can also be seen on each side. The Facial Bones (Reference of picture http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Gray_190_-_The_skull_from_the_front.png) The facial skeleton consists of fourteen irregular bones, which are all (except the lower jawbone) firmly attached to the cranium by means of sutures. They include the nasal bones, the two jawbones and the cheek bones. The lower jaw articulates with the temporal bone part of the cheek bone, just in front of the ear. This allows for the necessary movement of the lower jaw for the chewing of food. Both upper and lower jaws have alveolar pockets into which teeth fit.

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  3. Body in Motion

    The speed increase 0.5 kmh each minute and the beginning pace is at 8.5 kmh. The pace remains the same for an entire level and does not vary between shuttles within that level. The subject has two chances to miss the beep and after this they must withdraw from the testing and listen to what level and shuttle they obtained. If a runner reaches the line or cone prior to a beep they must wait here for the beep to sound before moving off.

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  4. Different Types of Mental Training

    Consider when you have thought about what that athlete has done during their performance, (e.g. how they kick a ball) tried to see your self doing that in a future competition, and then copied what they did during your performance. This is just one example of how our mind allows us to remember different events and then attempt to recreate them. It is imagery in one of many forms. There are two main types of imagery in port and exercise: internal and external. * Internal imagery is imagining yourself doing something and concentrating on how the activity feels * External imagery is imagining yourself doing something as tough you are watching it on a film

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  5. Free essay

    sports nutrition

    and men 48.5 per cent (275g). Eating to much carbohydrates can be bad for us as it makes us put on weight also eating to much can upset the balance of your body's blood sugar level, resulting in unordinary energy and mood levels that leave you feeling irritated and tired. Foods that have high amount of complex carbohydrates are; Bananas, barley, beans, brown rice, chick peas, lentils, nuts, oats ,parsnips ,potatoes ,root vegetables ,sweet corn, wholegrain cereals, wholemeal breads, Bad carbs are foods that have been "stripped" of all bran, fiber, and nutrients.

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  6. Exercise health and lifestyle

    Most of us think that casually walking to work counts as our exercise but it actually doesn't, moderate exercise means that you get warm, mildly out of breath, and mildly sweaty Psychological Exercise is good for body not only does it make you get fit and look more attractive to the opposite sex it helps with improving you moods and feelings. Exercising improves your mood due to the chemicals it releases in the brain called endorphins, it gives you an overall feeling of well-being.

    • Word count: 3002
  7. Free essay

    Body In Action

    through the pectoral girdle (4) and to the lower extremity (60) through the pelvic girdle (2). Some 300 muscles attach to the appendicular skeleton. The only joint between the pectoral girdle and the thorax is between the clavicle and the sternum (i.e. the sternoclavicular joint), the scapula instead being controlled by muscles. The humerus articulates to the scapula at the shoulder joint and to the two parallel bones of forearm, the radius and ulna, in the elbow joints (humeroulnar, humeroradial, and radioulnar). The distal ends of the forearm bones form the wrist joints with the hand.

    • Word count: 5344
  8. Personal Exercise Program

    This test is not very valid, as it does not correctly measure VO2 max, however the results taken from a multi stage fitness test can be changed to result in an assessment of VO2 max. 30-metre sprint The aim of the 30 metres Sprint is to measure an athlete's speed. To perform this test the following resources are needed, a flat straight measuring 60 metres, cones to mark 30 metres, a stopwatch and an assistant. The test comprises of 3 � 60 metre runs from a standing start and with a full recovery between each run.

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  9. Physiology Within Sport

    When chemoreceptor's are active this can stimulate the sympathetic nervous system this increases the adrenalin this then increases the heart rate. Normally an athlete's heart rate can increase up to three times within a minute of starting exercise. Bodily temperature increases because as the blood pressure increases this enables the muscles to contract more creating more heat, and because of this bodily temperature increase it increases the speed of the conduction of nerve impulses across the heart. Stroke volume is the outcome from Cardiac outcome, a stroke volume can be around 70-90 millilitres, however it can depend on how fit

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  10. Biological Chemicals and Their Role in Sport

    * Galactose - This is a sugar found in milk and yoghurt. * Fructose - A sugar found in honey. (A) http://wzeu.ask.com/r?t=a&d=eu&s=uk&c=p&ti=1&ai=30752&l=dir&o=312&sv=0a65284a&ip=545c5f74&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.yorkcountyschools.org%2Fths%2FScience%2Ffairheart%2Fapbio%2FImage15.gif 29th October 2006 This picture shows the 3 most common monosaccharides discussed above. As you can see they all follow the general formula and are just different because of how they are structured. Disaccharides Two monosaccharides join together to form a disaccharide. They bond together due to a condensation reaction forming a glycosidic bond. Three common examples of disaccharide sugars are: * Sucrose - (table sugar)

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  11. Body In Action

    The next is the bicuspid valve and this lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle. The aortic valve is between the left ventricle and the aorta. The pulmonary valve is between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. The atrioventricular valve is a term for all the valves between the atria and ventricles. The last valve is the semilunar valve, which is a term for aortic and pulmonary valves. Heart Rate is the rhythm the heart contracts and relaxes, which makes the heartbeat. The heart rate is measured by beats per minute. Decrease in resting heart rate is a good indicator of fitness.

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  12. A level Project, Personal Exercise Program on Netball.

    I created my match analysis sheets for both quantitative and qualitative data. Week 3: 24th Sept 07 D I plan to observe my performer in practice and in competition and identify their weaknesses. List the performer's major faults. Make a summary of my performer including their strengths and weaknesses and how their performance went. I observed my performer filling in the match analysis sheets for qualitative and quantitative data. I noted down the major weaknesses of the performer both in practice and in competition. From this information I evaluated their performance and specifically decided on weak and strong areas of their game.

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  13. A.S Personal exercise program for netball

    During Secondary School, I used to be a member of an athletics team and used to run the 200m and have run in the Hampshire schools competition. I also used to play rugby for the school which I thoroughly enjoyed. I have chosen to focus on improving my performance by carrying out a personal exercise programme which is sport specific to netball. My main fitness aims of the PEP are to improve my performance within my netball skills and during matches.

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  14. Dwain Chambers PE coursework

    This would have involved flexion at the hip caused by the concentric contraction of the quadriceps muscles in order to raise the femur up towards the main of the body. Shortly following this period of flexion at the hip, Chambers would have contracted his hamstrings in order to cause flexion at the knee to bring his tibia and fibula back under his body so he could run without hindrance, and bring them under his body ready for the next drive phase.

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  15. Skeletal System and Joints

    Then the powerful contraction of the anterior quadriceps extends the knee at the insertion (fibula) allowing you to kick the ball with your foot. The knee joint has now gone through both types of motion possible. The knee joint components used consists of; bones; tibia, fibular, patella, femur; muscles; hamstrings muscles group, quadriceps muscle group, patellar tendon. Saddle joints; The best example of a saddle joint is the thumb. The thumb is very important in racket and ball sports and court sports and such other sports and exercise programmes that require the hand to grip.

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  16. Movement within the Body and the Cardiovascular System

    Coracobrachialis Coracoid process Superior anterior humerus Further flexion of the elbow to regain defensive stance Biceps Brachii Long head -Coracoid process and short head -supraglenoid tubercle Long head- superior anterior radius Short head - superior anterior ulna Triceps Brachii Infraglenoid tubercle and superior posterior humerus Olecranon (superior ulna) Agonists; Concentric Antagonists; Eccentric Action Movement Agonist muscles Origin Insertion Antagonist Origin Insertion Contraction Shot putt (throw) Upper body Agonists; Concentric Antagonists; Eccentric Flexion of the shoulder Anterior Deltoid Acromion- clavicle Superior anterior humerus Posterior Deltoid Spine of scapula Superior posterior humerus Pectorals Major Clavicle Superior anterior humerus Latissimus Dorsi Superior anterior

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  17. Planning, performing and evaluating a Personal Exercise Program (PEP)

    This will help me improve my game and make me a better player. Once I have been tested on my weights I will set aims for each exercise and hopefully by the end of the program I will be able to reach my goals. Requirements for Rugby - Health and Skill related Rugby is a very tiring sport as it consists of two halves of 40 minutes and so an element of endurance is needed so that the player can still play at his full potential towards the end of the game.

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  18. innovation of sport

    We find here that the two boots are extremely different and have quite contrasting purposes. With the vapour being there to improve speed and touch of the ball the predator is made improve accuracy, swerve and power on the ball. Vapours The vapours offer an extremely light touch and are made very basic and quite plain. They come in various colours and have very thin uppers. When being worn they are designed to give a comfortable fit and provide you with a light feel, almost as though there is nothing on your foot. Obviously they are very lightweight and at an official weight of 96 grams they are specifically designed to increase your speed and provide you with more of a feel on the ball.

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  19. Sports Science

    The right shoulder is in a state of horizontal adduction because the arm is facing infront of the body. The deltoid will contract eccentrically and the pectoralis major will contract concentrically in order to do this. The reason the left arm is mainly in the phase of flexion is to balance the body out so that when the javelin thrower releases the javelin he will not fall to the floor and the javelin will go in the direction it is supposed to.

    • Word count: 3219
  20. Treatment to Joint Ventures Under The European Commission On Merger Regulations.

    Having discussed the definition of a joint venture and the basics of what a joint venture entails, this essay will focus on how the commission treats joint ventures under the European Commission on Merger Regulations and Article 81 of the treaty expanding on how a joint venture is found based on commission requirements. Since May 2004, major changes have been made in the application of Article 81 of the treaty and the Merger Regulation, in relation to joint ventures4, hence, these new applications would be focused on in this essay to see the commissions attitude towards joint ventures.

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  21. P.E. Assessment

    Weaknesses & Why The speed of the Initial throwing arm appeared to be slow. This could be a result of a lack of Explosive Strength. The idea to have a fast throwing arm is to enable the javelin to be pulled through using the entire body and releasing at a high speed. Basically, the faster the javelin is released, the further it will go. The throwing stance just before release appears to be very low down, or the legs are too far apart. This may be because of the performer lacks balance, therefore the wider stance is needed not to fall over.

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  22. Looking at the skeletal and muscular system and the use of this system during exercise.

    Blood Cell Production: Both red and white blood cells are produced in the bone marrow. The bones also store minerals for other functions. The Skeleton: The human skeleton consists of 206 bones. Humans are actually born with more bones (about 300), but many fuse together as a child grows up. These bones support the body and allow movement. Front View Back View The Sections of The Skeleton: The skeleton is divided into two sections the axial and appendicular skeleton. Axial Appendicular Axial: The bones of the skeleton which form the main axis or core of the body.

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  23. Information on the Physiology of Exercise

    Support is provided by the vertebral column, this is widely known as the backbone or the spine. This provides the body with its straight back and gives us most of our shape. All of the moving bones in our body link up to the vertebral column in some way. In football the use of the skeleton is essential as the goalie must stand, using the whole skeleton, and block the ball with either the arms or legs. In our body we have different types of bones, they are all made for different purposes: Features Purpose Example Long bones Hollow centre, (diaphysis)

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  24. Strength coursework.

    Elastic Strength: "the ability to overcome a resistance with a fast contraction." * Strength endurance - This is the ability of the muscle to withstand fatigue. This is the type strength most appropriate to health-related fitness. For example, this type of strength is used when digging the garden, carrying the shopping etc. It is also essential to the sports performer, for example towards the end of the game or when a game goes into extra time, the team whose players have better muscular endurance will be in the more favourable position.

    • Word count: 3318

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?

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