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AS and A Level: Anatomy & Physiology

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  1. Performance Enhancement essay 2

    In the future it may be possible to treat patients with muscle disorders by genetic medicines that will improve their muscle strength. Studies have also been conducted to speed up wound healing and to reduce muscular soreness after exercise, a practice that might not be considered as 'therapeutic' by everybody and their performance enhancement properties might be questionable. As well as gene doping there is also Gene therapy which works by inserting extra copies of particular genes into the body.

    • Word count: 862
  2. Free essay

    sports nutrition

    and men 48.5 per cent (275g). Eating to much carbohydrates can be bad for us as it makes us put on weight also eating to much can upset the balance of your body's blood sugar level, resulting in unordinary energy and mood levels that leave you feeling irritated and tired. Foods that have high amount of complex carbohydrates are; Bananas, barley, beans, brown rice, chick peas, lentils, nuts, oats ,parsnips ,potatoes ,root vegetables ,sweet corn, wholegrain cereals, wholemeal breads, Bad carbs are foods that have been "stripped" of all bran, fiber, and nutrients.

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  3. Free essay

    functions of the skeleton

    prehistoric times men would have to catch food by running after there prey, The skeleton would evolve to make the legs longer resulting in the men running faster. http://www.colganinstitute.com/CI_Photos/CI_Skeleton1.gif Different shapes of the skeleton help with different sports. There are 3 different types: Mesomorph As you can see a person that is a mesomorph is strong and muscular and a medium height. These suit types of sport like sprinting or swimming this is because these sport use power in their muscles which mesomorphs usually have.

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  4. Exercise health and lifestyle

    Most of us think that casually walking to work counts as our exercise but it actually doesn't, moderate exercise means that you get warm, mildly out of breath, and mildly sweaty Psychological Exercise is good for body not only does it make you get fit and look more attractive to the opposite sex it helps with improving you moods and feelings. Exercising improves your mood due to the chemicals it releases in the brain called endorphins, it gives you an overall feeling of well-being.

    • Word count: 3002
  5. Free essay

    Body In Action

    through the pectoral girdle (4) and to the lower extremity (60) through the pelvic girdle (2). Some 300 muscles attach to the appendicular skeleton. The only joint between the pectoral girdle and the thorax is between the clavicle and the sternum (i.e. the sternoclavicular joint), the scapula instead being controlled by muscles. The humerus articulates to the scapula at the shoulder joint and to the two parallel bones of forearm, the radius and ulna, in the elbow joints (humeroulnar, humeroradial, and radioulnar). The distal ends of the forearm bones form the wrist joints with the hand.

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  6. Effects of energy intake and expenditure on performance

    The length of time you perform an activity can also affect the amount of energy you expend. For example, a marathon runner or an Olympic rower will burn off far more calories than say someone who was playing social badminton for 30 minutes etc.; this is because the intensity is higher but so is the period of time. Because athletes perform at high levels of intensity and time in sport each day their body is working harder to respire, this means the heart is beating faster to become accustomed to this increased requirements. Bodily heat increases whilst athletes are performing because the muscles are contracting and relaxing faster; this is why you can sometimes see steam come off athletes during cold weather.

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  7. Effects of hydration levels on an athlete's performance

    * Skin Flushing- this is where a redness of the skin occurs and it is caused by a lack of water being supplied to the surface of the skin. * Dark Coloured Urine- this shows that fluid concentration is high and is an obvious sign that fluid levels in the body are low. * Dry Mouth- this is scientifically known as Xerostomia and is caused by a lack of saliva in the mouth and throat and shows that the mucus membranes are drying out.

    • Word count: 2012
  8. structure and function of the digestive system and nutrients

    Weetabix Fats Fats have three main purposes, these are: * To provide the body with warmth * To help in biological functions such as energy storage * To provide vitamins A, D, E, K There are several different types of fats with different structure: * Monounsaturated - these do not raise blood cholesterol and encourages heart health * Polyunsaturated Fats - lowers blood cholesterol and encourages heart health * Omega-3 fats are a type of polyunsaturated fat found mainly in oily fish * Saturated Fats - raise blood cholesterol and promote heart disease * Trans Fats are the other type

    • Word count: 1878
  9. What is SALTAPS? First Aid in Sport

    A sking the injured athlete questions and assessing the problem. The assessor will need to ask the player or the participant, how the injury happened. If they have seen the accident occur, this question becomes irrelevant. The assessor will need to ask the individual the following questions: Are you okay? What exactly hurts? Is there anybody else injured or involved? On the scale of one to ten - ten being painful and one being bearable, how would you rate the state at which you are feeling at present? Do you feel sick?

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  10. Healing Process

    The features include redness, local heat, swelling, pain and in severe cases loss of function caused by opening of blood vessels and nerve exposure. The local blood vessel (injured area) constriction lasts a few seconds to as long as ten minutes curtailing loss of blood and initiation of clotting. The vasodilatation process takes place due to the presence of heparin and other chemical mediators along with an increased blood flow to the injured region, causes swelling. The blood from the broken vessels and damaged local tissues form a haematoma and with the necrotic tissue (dead tissue)

    • Word count: 1023
  11. Dead leg rehabilitation

    Active Movement - see if the injured person can move the injured area Passive Movement - try to move the injured area Strength - if both passive and active movements are performed with no pain try a resistance movement to see if any pain occurs. Once the injury has been established as a dead leg it is important to use the correct procedure to treat the injury. In this case the best and most effective way to treat the injury would be by using the RICE protocol.

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  12. Sprained ankle rehabilitation

    If any bleeding has occurred covering and compressing the cut with a sterile cloth/bandage must treat this. The RICE protocol should now be used: REST - the injured part immediately, this will stop the injury be further aggravated and there will be more pain if this is the case ICE - the injured area should be cooled, using something such as a cold compress or freeze spray, this will close the blood vessels meaning blood will not be able to get to the injured area so well and this in turn reduces swelling COMPRESS - the injured site should be compressed using strapping, this also restricts blood flow into the injured area as it makes the blood vessels constrict, meaning swelling and will be controlled/reduced, whilst also bringing out the bruise.

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  13. Personal Exercise Program

    This test is not very valid, as it does not correctly measure VO2 max, however the results taken from a multi stage fitness test can be changed to result in an assessment of VO2 max. 30-metre sprint The aim of the 30 metres Sprint is to measure an athlete's speed. To perform this test the following resources are needed, a flat straight measuring 60 metres, cones to mark 30 metres, a stopwatch and an assistant. The test comprises of 3 � 60 metre runs from a standing start and with a full recovery between each run.

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  14. effects of exercise on cardiovascular system

    The stroke volume is the volume of blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction. The same as the heart rate the stroke volume also increases depending on the intensity of the exercise taking place. Stroke volume is able to increase for two reasons: * Increased venous return - this is the volume of blood that returns from the body to the right side of the heart. * The frank starling mechanism Cardiac output is the volume of blood pumped out of the heart per minute and is the product of stroke volume and heart rate.

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  15. Discuss the role of feedback in the learning of skills

    The same can be seen in rugby when learning to tackle without the correct feedback a player may start tackling dangerously causing both themselves and opponents injuries. This can be seen below in a flow chart when the feedback is compared to a model. (1) The diagram above shows that with constant feedback skills can be improved and maintained so that the performer can execute them on a more consecutively accurate level. Feedback can be seen in six main forms; Positive feedback - This can be seen as what went well during the performance of a skill.

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  16. Physiology Within Sport

    When chemoreceptor's are active this can stimulate the sympathetic nervous system this increases the adrenalin this then increases the heart rate. Normally an athlete's heart rate can increase up to three times within a minute of starting exercise. Bodily temperature increases because as the blood pressure increases this enables the muscles to contract more creating more heat, and because of this bodily temperature increase it increases the speed of the conduction of nerve impulses across the heart. Stroke volume is the outcome from Cardiac outcome, a stroke volume can be around 70-90 millilitres, however it can depend on how fit

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  17. Biological Chemicals and Their Role in Sport

    * Galactose - This is a sugar found in milk and yoghurt. * Fructose - A sugar found in honey. (A) http://wzeu.ask.com/r?t=a&d=eu&s=uk&c=p&ti=1&ai=30752&l=dir&o=312&sv=0a65284a&ip=545c5f74&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.yorkcountyschools.org%2Fths%2FScience%2Ffairheart%2Fapbio%2FImage15.gif 29th October 2006 This picture shows the 3 most common monosaccharides discussed above. As you can see they all follow the general formula and are just different because of how they are structured. Disaccharides Two monosaccharides join together to form a disaccharide. They bond together due to a condensation reaction forming a glycosidic bond. Three common examples of disaccharide sugars are: * Sucrose - (table sugar)

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  18. Body In Action

    The next is the bicuspid valve and this lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle. The aortic valve is between the left ventricle and the aorta. The pulmonary valve is between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. The atrioventricular valve is a term for all the valves between the atria and ventricles. The last valve is the semilunar valve, which is a term for aortic and pulmonary valves. Heart Rate is the rhythm the heart contracts and relaxes, which makes the heartbeat. The heart rate is measured by beats per minute. Decrease in resting heart rate is a good indicator of fitness.

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  19. Describe the different sports massage techniques

    Petrissage is usually applied vertically to the muscle tissue. The benefits include the warming of tissue for deeper work, increase circulation, increase the supply of nutrients and oxygen to muscle, softens superficial facia, decreases muscle tension, and restoring mobility by decreasing adhesion. Frictions- -Frictions for the ridding of adhesions between fascial layers, muscles, compartments etc. Frictions also promote healing in tendons and also decrease the pain perception. Another technique that is not so often used as the three above is myofascial release. Myofascial release is to the manual massage technique for stretching the fascia (a specialised connective tissue layer which surrounds the muscle)

    • Word count: 1191
  20. Discuss the differences between skill, technique and ability and explain how 'practice makes perfect'

    Highly skilled performers are said to have reached the antonomous stage of learning. (Complete A-Z PE). Technique can be interpreted to be the pattern of movements which is technically appropriate to perform a specific skill. There are three different types of skill- cognitive, perceptual and motor. Cognitive can be explained as when you do arithmetic in your head (for example when you are computing the darts score) you are employing intellectual cognitive skills (Cognitive skill is the ability to solve problems by thinking.).

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  21. Local and National Provision for Athletics

    they can compete for there country. They still do not earn any money (until they are senior, then the competition abroad they are competing in pays them to attend it) but will get future funding of there athletics and scholarships. Professional- Being a professional athlete is not like being a professional footballer, they don't get paid. They will get paid for turning up to events (so that the stadium can attract more publicity probably) and get prize money but will not have a fixed 'wage'. These athletes will get money so that they can take up full time athletics (not a wage)

    • Word count: 1111
  22. A level Project, Personal Exercise Program on Netball.

    I created my match analysis sheets for both quantitative and qualitative data. Week 3: 24th Sept 07 D I plan to observe my performer in practice and in competition and identify their weaknesses. List the performer's major faults. Make a summary of my performer including their strengths and weaknesses and how their performance went. I observed my performer filling in the match analysis sheets for qualitative and quantitative data. I noted down the major weaknesses of the performer both in practice and in competition. From this information I evaluated their performance and specifically decided on weak and strong areas of their game.

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  23. A.S Personal exercise program for netball

    During Secondary School, I used to be a member of an athletics team and used to run the 200m and have run in the Hampshire schools competition. I also used to play rugby for the school which I thoroughly enjoyed. I have chosen to focus on improving my performance by carrying out a personal exercise programme which is sport specific to netball. My main fitness aims of the PEP are to improve my performance within my netball skills and during matches.

    • Word count: 21595
  24. Dwain Chambers PE coursework

    This would have involved flexion at the hip caused by the concentric contraction of the quadriceps muscles in order to raise the femur up towards the main of the body. Shortly following this period of flexion at the hip, Chambers would have contracted his hamstrings in order to cause flexion at the knee to bring his tibia and fibula back under his body so he could run without hindrance, and bring them under his body ready for the next drive phase.

    • Word count: 3002

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