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AS and A Level: Anatomy & Physiology

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  1. Respertory system

    Here is a diagram of the heart with the all the labelling to tell you what each part of the heart is: Right Atrium: The Right Atrium is larger than the Left Atrium but has thinner walls. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the organs of the blood. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the muscles and the other organs. The right atrium contains Pulmonary Artery and Venae carvae which carry the blood the contain Pulmonary valve and there is the tricuspid valve..

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  2. Anatomy of Humans

    Suture skullduggery.com/images/0248.jpg Syndesmosis joint is located in the tibular and fibular. Gomphosis joint are only found in one place in the body, which is in your teeth. Gomphosis is the joint is what connects your teeth to your gums, which is why it is called a Gomphosis joint. It is the connection between the teeth and the gums by using the roots. injuryupdate.com.au/injuries/ foot_&_ankle/ank... Cartilaginous joints There are two types of cartilaginous joints, Primary and Secondary. Cartilaginous Primary joint is only found in the first rib and end of long bones in the body.

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  3. Sports injury

    There are many things like the support for the team or the other team can affect you. There's injuries like a cut by the eye will get you taken off for a while, there's injuries like a broken leg also that will stop you from playing and if the player does stay on will have long term damage as the bones wont have time to heal that is why it is a dangerous sport is would come into affect with any major injury.

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  4. Health and Exersice

    > Samuel Johnson (1709-84) said 'I take the true definition exercise to be labour without weariness.' Benefits of exercise > Selfasteam > Improving your body shape > Helping with the relief of tension and stress > Reducing the chances of getting an illness and disease > Giving you a physical challenge to aim for > Toning up the body and the muscles, which leads to an improvement in posture > Increasing your basic levels of strength, stamina and flexibility If a person is physically fit, their body is able to functions with energy and alertness and without undue fatigue.

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  5. Skeletal System and Joints

    Then the powerful contraction of the anterior quadriceps extends the knee at the insertion (fibula) allowing you to kick the ball with your foot. The knee joint has now gone through both types of motion possible. The knee joint components used consists of; bones; tibia, fibular, patella, femur; muscles; hamstrings muscles group, quadriceps muscle group, patellar tendon. Saddle joints; The best example of a saddle joint is the thumb. The thumb is very important in racket and ball sports and court sports and such other sports and exercise programmes that require the hand to grip.

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  6. Movement within the Body and the Cardiovascular System

    Coracobrachialis Coracoid process Superior anterior humerus Further flexion of the elbow to regain defensive stance Biceps Brachii Long head -Coracoid process and short head -supraglenoid tubercle Long head- superior anterior radius Short head - superior anterior ulna Triceps Brachii Infraglenoid tubercle and superior posterior humerus Olecranon (superior ulna) Agonists; Concentric Antagonists; Eccentric Action Movement Agonist muscles Origin Insertion Antagonist Origin Insertion Contraction Shot putt (throw) Upper body Agonists; Concentric Antagonists; Eccentric Flexion of the shoulder Anterior Deltoid Acromion- clavicle Superior anterior humerus Posterior Deltoid Spine of scapula Superior posterior humerus Pectorals Major Clavicle Superior anterior humerus Latissimus Dorsi Superior anterior

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  7. Sports Massage Vs Physiotherapy

    Thus massage can uncover injuries at the sub-clinical level that can be dealt with before they get to the clinical stage. Massage can facilitate soft tissue healing in a number of ways. It helps reduce both primary oedema and the possibility of secondary injury caused by the pressure of increased fluid in the area of trauma. Increased circulation resulting from massage can move healing nutrients to the injury site. Massage can also promote the creation of strong and mobile scar tissue and prevent and break adhesions in the injured area and surrounding tissue.

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  8. Planning, performing and evaluating a Personal Exercise Program (PEP)

    This will help me improve my game and make me a better player. Once I have been tested on my weights I will set aims for each exercise and hopefully by the end of the program I will be able to reach my goals. Requirements for Rugby - Health and Skill related Rugby is a very tiring sport as it consists of two halves of 40 minutes and so an element of endurance is needed so that the player can still play at his full potential towards the end of the game.

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  9. PE Coursework - Section 1

    In theory this should slowly decrease as the number of sessions I have had increases. By doing my circuit I hope to improve my stamina, balance and agility. If I manage to do this I know my pep will have been a success. Before starting the programme I will perform some pre-training fitness tests, these will include tests to establish my current levels of fitness in stamina, agility and balance. After completing my programme I will do the same tests again to see if I have improved in the areas of fitness I have stated.

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  10. PE Coursework - Section 2

    for ballroom dancing perform a simple routine. Dynamic stretches are more appropriate to the warm up as they help reduce muscle stiffness. Static exercises do not reduce muscle stiffness. As it is important for a dancer to stretch their legs most of my warm up stretches focus on the lower body. There is however a few that focus on the upper body. To ensure that the muscle is properly stretched all stretches must be held for about 10 seconds. Stretch Picture Type of stretch Muscles involved What to do Normal stretch Dynamic Gastrocnemius Stand with your feet shoulder width apart with one foot in front of the other.

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  11. PE Coursework - Section 7 & 8

    Session 2 In my second circuit my general aim was just to improve on each section of my circuit. I particularly want to do as many stomach crunches and sit ups as possible as after my last session my abdominals were sore as I am not used to working these muscles to such a high extent. I think that if I can do as many stomach crunches and sit ups my abdominals will get used to the level of exercise and will not ache. I also want to make sure that all my stations are in the right place and do not overwork a particular muscle.

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  12. Application of Anatomical and Physiological Knowledge to Improve Performance

    Speed: Speed is the rate of motion, or equivalently the rate of change in position, often expressed as distance travelled in a space of time. Like in strength there are three types of speed which can be applied to football. Speed is the quickness of movement to a limb whether this is legs for running or arms for throwing. Some examples are: Maximum Speed: In football the maximum speed you use depends on the action quite regularly you are sprinting your maximum to get to the ball before opposition but also you need speed in your feet when attempting skill and manipulating the football.

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  13. innovation of sport

    We find here that the two boots are extremely different and have quite contrasting purposes. With the vapour being there to improve speed and touch of the ball the predator is made improve accuracy, swerve and power on the ball. Vapours The vapours offer an extremely light touch and are made very basic and quite plain. They come in various colours and have very thin uppers. When being worn they are designed to give a comfortable fit and provide you with a light feel, almost as though there is nothing on your foot. Obviously they are very lightweight and at an official weight of 96 grams they are specifically designed to increase your speed and provide you with more of a feel on the ball.

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  14. Sports Science

    The right shoulder is in a state of horizontal adduction because the arm is facing infront of the body. The deltoid will contract eccentrically and the pectoralis major will contract concentrically in order to do this. The reason the left arm is mainly in the phase of flexion is to balance the body out so that when the javelin thrower releases the javelin he will not fall to the floor and the javelin will go in the direction it is supposed to.

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  15. Skeletal System Anatomy

    Flat bones: these bones have flat smooth surfaces and are mainly there to protect organs and attach to muscle some examples of these would be the cranium, sternum, ribs and the scapulae. Irregular bones: these are bones that have different shapes and sizes and can be used for protection and example of this would be the lumbar vertebrae. Sesamoid bones: these bones are the type that are found in tendons and an example of this could be the patella. (Figure 2 Axial)

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  16. Health, fitness and diet.

    Muscle tone is when your muscles contract. It can help with posture by keeping your body muscles working and aligned in the correct way. Fitness 1a. Endurance is how long a person is able to do a physical activity for and the longer they can do it for, the more endurance they have. b. Two different activities or events which require a high level of endurance are a marathon event which needs a lot of endurance to run the long distances that they are.

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  17. How does the skeletal system help Sports performance?

    An example of an irregular bone is the Patella or vertebrae. The vertebral column also is a very vital part to our body as it supports our body, allowing us to stand up, bend flex and twist. There are 5 sections to the vertebral column. The cervical, which consists of 7 vertebrae. These are the smallest vertebrae and are found in the neck. Then there is the Thoracic. This consists of 12 vertebrae. The 12 pairs of ribs join on to the thoracic vertebrae.

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  18. The skeleton test

    1) ___________________________________ 2) ___________________________________ 3) ___________________________________ (2) All physical activity requires movement using bones and muscles. (i) Name three major bones which are located in the leg.

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  19. Anatomy and physiology of Voice and Speech

    open Shoulders open and free, hanging arms with space under the armpits Head lightly balancing on the top of the spine not tipped forward or back 5) Without good body and spinal alignment breathing isn't as efficient and the voice will collapse. Good alignment opens the voice and creates more resonance. 6) To develop awareness of habitual alignment you could use mirrors, arranging then in such a way that you can get a good full length view of yourself from the front and the sides.

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  20. Skeletal Systems

    Sesamoid bones-They are specialised bones that assist joint movement and these are covered with articular cartilage. There are two parts to the skeletal system which some people are yet to know but they are called the AXIAL and APPENDICULAR Skeleton. In fig.1 this shows the full skeleton and the areas shaded in blue is the axial skeleton and the areas shaded in red are the appendicular skeleton. The bones included in the skeleton are: from head to toe: Cranium/skull (flat bone/irregular bone)-this part of the head is used to house the organ called the brain. This is a very hard and durable bone and is vital to the bodies' survival as it hold a very important organ.

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  21. sports injuries.Common causes and symptoms of sports injuries for football players.

    Symptoms - restriction of movement, bruising, swelling, pain Concussion Cause - A concussion is typically caused by a severe head trauma where the brain moves violently within the skull so that brain cells all fire at once Symptoms - Memory loss, unconsciousness, Clear or reddish fluid draining from the ears, nose or mouth, Unequal size pupils Muscle Cramps Cause - inadequate stretching and muscle fatigue, exercising or working in intense heat, dehydration and depletion of salt and minerals. Symptoms - Twitching severe pain muscle distortion beneath the skin.

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  22. The Mechanisms of fatigue, including neuromuscular fatigue and list the effects of metabolites (lactate/carbon dioxide)

    Performance levels will decrease because of muscular fatigue. A sporting example of when this occurs is near the end of a marathon run. Decreased availability of calcium As the body exercises a build up of lactic acid causes calcium stop being released. This results in muscular contraction not being able to take place as calcium ions enables the sliding filament theory to occur which causes muscular contraction. A sporting example of when this occurs is near to the end of a football match.

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  23. The Anatomy and Kinetics of the body in relation to sporting application

    The acromion (highest point of the shoulder) is formed by the outer end of the scapula extending over the shoulder joint. This is also called the acromial process. The acromioclavicular joint is the joint between the acromion of the scapula and the clavicle. The shoulder bones are connected by ligaments and the bones are connected to the surrounding muscles by tendons. Two major tendons of the shoulder are the biceps tendon, which attaches the biceps muscle to the shoulder, and the supraspinatus tendon, which helps form the rotator cuff.

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  24. Neuromuscular Blocking Agents - NMBAs

    They do not cross over the blood-barrier so do not alter consciousness, so has no analgesic or anaesthetic effects, it is possible for the animal to undergo surgery while being completely awake but unable to move. They also remove some of the obvious signs and normal signs of inadequate anaesthesia (movement, ocular position and cranial nerve reflexes) so that monitoring the level of anaesthesia is hard. Because the animal can not respond normally to inadequate anaesthesia, the anaesthetist must ensure the animal is unconscious.

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  25. The Respiratory System:

    Subject A (female) Emma holder Tidal Volume = 23mm (average) this is due to the fact that hear tidal volumes where of mixed length so I thought it would be best to get the mean. Inspiratory reserve volume = 11 mm Expiratory reserve volume = 30 mm The percentage of the vital capacity the tidal volume represents = 37% Subject B (Male) Andy Tidal volume - 4 units Inspiratory reserve volume - 14 units Expiratory reserve volume - 6 units The percentage of the vital capacity the tidal volume represents - 20% Subject C (male)

    • Word count: 781

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