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AS and A Level: Anatomy & Physiology

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  1. Discuss Relaxation of Muscles and Emotion Memory as Tools an Actor Would Use in Rehearsal to Prepare For Building a Character.

    He noticed how fluid, lifelike and realistic their movements were. The actors seemed to be completely relaxed, and they let the behavior of the character come through effortlessly. From this, Stanislavski developed his idea of relaxation and concluded that unwanted tension has to be got rid of and that the performer must keep in a state of both physical and vocal relaxation. This is reinforced by Stanislavski stating that: "Unless tense muscles are relaxed, the actor's normal mental activity, and therefore the spiritual life of the character he portrays, is impossible."

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  2. I am going to investigate the relationship between the size of our biceps muscle and how strong those make are grip.

    These are muscles that are attached to bones and are used to move the body. Skeletal muscles can contract powerfully, but get tired easily. They are also controlled by the conscious brain, so you have to decide to run to catch a bus or pick up a cup of coffee. Another groups of muscles are the smooth muscles of the gut. These muscles contract very powerfully, but do not tire easily and can stay contracted for long periods of time. They are not attached to bones and are not under conscious control. A third kind of muscle is only found in the heart and is called cardiac muscle.

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  3. Fractures - Bone Injuries and Fractures.

    If the victim must be moved, immobilize the limb by securing it to a firm object. (For example, a piece of wood, broom handle, ski pole, several newspapers or magazines, or even an uninjured leg can be tied to an injured leg to immobilize it.) Both ends of the splint must extend beyond the area of the suspected fracture. Secure with bandages, belts, sheets, or neckties. Most injuries of the arm or hand can be stabilized simply with a sling.

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  4. What are the Affects of Warming Up and Cooling Down?

    �It mobilizes the oxidative energy sources so that it is easier to switch to aerobic energy production. This is achieved by increases in the heart and respiratory rates. �There is reduced viscosity in the muscles, so they can contract and relax more quickly. �There is increased speed and force of contraction of the muscles. �The increased temperature increases the enzyme activity within the muscle fibres while improving the extensibility of the fibres and tendons. �Warming up alerts the nervous system, therefore preparing you physiologically and psychologically for the strain to come.

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  5. With reference to Osteoarthritis and Osteoporosis describe the effects of ageing on skeletal tissue.

    Howe ever the degree of roughening in people does vary as some may only have very mild symptoms. This term 'Osteoarthritis' is normally only used when the degradation of the cartilage has become so bad that there is significant pain and loss of mobility. With Osteoarthritis changes occur in the collagen and the glyco-proteins that help to give resilience of the cartilage, so that these gradually break down. Normally the replacement of cartilage is the same as the breakdown however this disruption caused the breakdown to be faster then the replacements.

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  6. A Synoptic analysis of scientific principles in the development of performance What are the differences between an untrained individual and a trained athlete?

    The stroke volume is also increased due to the size of the heart increasing so this equals that the amount of blood volume will be higher that actually gets pumped through the heart. Increased cappillarisation occurs around the skeletal muscles when the muscles have been toned. This means that their is more blood flow to the muscles so this means more energy can be taken to the muscles and waste can be taken away from the muscles more efficiency.

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  7. The sport I will be doing for my training programme is Football.

    They are wider front to back rather than side to side. * Mesomorphs- have a wedge-shaped body, wide shoulders and narrow hips, a massive cubical head, broad shoulders and heavily muscled arms and legs and a minimum amount of fat. They are narrow from front to back. * Ectomorphs- have a narrow shoulder and hips, a narrow chest and abdomen, thin arms and legs, a high forehead and receding chin, little muscle and little fat. They are thin and bony all round.

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  8. I will be researching the two skeleton structures and the bones which they contain. The different categories of bone articulation and all about the joints in the body

    carpels, tarsels, and calcaneum. Flat bones- offer protection to the internal organs, e.g. sternum, cranium, and pelvis. Irregular bones- has complex and individual shapes, which makes them difficult to classify. E.g. vertebrae, the face. Sesamoid bones- ease joint movement and resist friction and compression. Usually developed in tendons and are covered with a layer of articular cartilage as they exist where bones articulate. Generally small, largest being patella. (Task 2) Where two or more bones meet an articulation or joint exists. Movement does not always occur at these sites. Bone articulations are placed into three different categories according to the degree of movement permitted.

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  9. Weight training programme for a hockey midfield player.

    There is little movement of limb, but considerable internal forces are being exerted against relatively immobile objects. For example static strength is used in a rugby scrum. Cardiorespiratory endurance is the ability of the heart and lung system to cope with activity and work over a long period of time. This will be useful for a hockey player to have because they are constantly working so the lungs and heart need to be efficient and need to work hard and deliver the body with sufficient oxygen. To start the session off I will do a warm up.

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  10. Comments on shot putting techniques (students)

    Although there is a sequence involved, it is imperative that all the forces be applied as simultaneously as possible. Before describing the students let me describe a professional attempt at shot putting to make it easier to compare. To describe the above pictures as you can see the person starts with a relaxed low posture and has his elbow high, while the shot put is just about touching his neck. 1. Then you can see his hips start off balancing. 2. He slowly starts extending his rear leg. 3. When the rear leg is fully extended the glide is low and fast.

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  11. Investigating Muscle Contraction

    Place the muscle fiber on a glass slide. Place the slide on the piece of graph paper. 2. Use the mounted needles to straighten the fibre (the lines on the graph paper should help) 3. Measure and record the length of the fibre. 4. Put 3 drops of water on the fibre so that the whole length of the fibre is covered. Leave for 2 minutes. Drain the water off into the Petri dish. Empty the dish. 5. Repeat steps 2 (if necessary)

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  12. Scientists recognize two kinds of exercise: isotonic and isometric. Isotonic exercise involves moving a muscle through a long distance against low resistance, as in running, swimming, or gymnastics.

    Muscles and joints All major muscle groups play an important role in throwing the shot. Putting the shot is probably the most "athletic" event in any sport. During the actual throwing motion you have drastic concentric contractions of the Gluteus, Quadriceps, Soleus, Pectorals, Anterior Deltoids, Latissimus Dorsi, Triceps, all muscles of the trunk, forearm, and hand areas. These actions can be considered isotonic. Isometric A form of physical exercise in which muscles are contracted, but not allowed to move the associated joints.

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  13. Anatomy and physiology

    They also allow the body to do complex movements like bending and give the body flexibility. Production of red blood cells :- Bones help the production of blood cells and also provide a pathway for them to travel. The skeleton is divided into 2 sections which are the axial skeleton which is the skull, ribs, vertebral column and sternum these are used to protect vital organs. The second section is the appendicular skeleton. This allows movement it features the hips, shoulder, arms, hands, legs and feet.

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  14. The Skeletal System

    also protected by the Skeletal System, the brain is protected by the skull just like the heart and lungs are protected by the sternum and rib cage. The skeleton has two main parts: The Axial Skeleton and The Appendicular Skeleton, The Axial Skeleton contains the skull, spine, ribs and the sternum (which is the breastbone) and includes another 80 bones. The Appendicular Skeleton includes two limb girdles (the shoulders and the pelvis) and their attached limb bones (arms and legs).

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  15. Flexibility Practical

    -The elasticity of muscle tissue (muscle tissue that is scarred due to previous injury is not very elastic). -The ability of a muscle to relax and contract to achieve the greatest range of motion. -The temperature of the joint and associated tissues (joints and muscles offer better flexibility at body temperatures that are 1 to 2 degrees higher than normal). * External influences: -The temperature of the place where one is training (a warmer temperature is more conducive to increased flexibility). -The time of day (most people are more flexible in the afternoon than in the morning, peaking from about 2.30pm-4pm).

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  16. Human and Social Biology

    When the hypothalamus detects a change of hormone level in the blood it produces a hormone, which in turn stimulates the anterior pituitary lobe to release more of its own chemical messenger. The whole system is regulated and controlled by this negative feedback mechanism. The hormones synthesised by the adenohypophysis include growth hormone, (GH), thyroid stimulating hormone, (TSH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone, (ACTH), prolactin, (PRL), and gonadotrophic hormones, (FSH and LH). Growth hormone or GH promotes the growth of connective tissues, muscles, the skeleton, and organs such as the pancreas, liver, and kidneys.

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  17. Describe the attachment of muscles and how they produce movement and provide support.

    Cell junctions do not join skeletal muscle fibres. The endomysium consists of the basal lamina and thin connective tissue that surround individual muscle cells junctions. The perimysium consists of sheets of connective tissue which separate the fibres into groups known as fascicles. PIC 1 The epimysium surrounds the groups of fascicles that contain the muscle. Skeleton muscle is innervated and highly vascularised, due to its high energy needs, by penetration into the epimysium with branches into the peri- and endomysium. Connective tissue transmits the mechanical force of muscle.

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  18. The Effects of Fatigue In the Upper Body On a Player's Abillity To Take a Successful Set Shot.

    The longer the distance to the net, the more the player should use his legs to drive the ball through the net. When taking a shot from a stationary position a player should make sure his feet are spread flat on the floor at shoulder width apart, knees bent, with the body facing the target and with the ball up and in a ready position. Throughout the shot it is imperative that the ball is under the player's complete control.

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  19. Describe the attachment of muscles and how they produce movement and provide support

    The skeletal muscle Tissue organisation: Individual skeletal muscle cells are called muscle fibres. Muscle fibres are large and the nuclei reside along the cell boundary. A basal lamina and connective tissue surround each muscle cell. They are bound to each other and to surrounding tissue by connective tissue to form a gross 'muscle'. Cell junctions do not join skeletal muscle fibres. The endomysium consists of the basal lamina and thin connective tissue that surround individual muscle cells junctions. The perimysium consists of sheets of connective tissue which separate the fibres into groups known as fascicles.

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  20. Review the known and potential causes of osteoarthritis of the limb joint(s) and treatments available now or in the future to impede its progress.

    This in return will increase the thickness of the subchondral bone which forms bone cysts. This large peripheral growths of bone and cartilage called osteophytes, which represent the bones attempt to grow a new articular cartilage. This is the primary starting point of osteoarthritis. In the great majority of instances, osteoarthritis of the limb joint appears insidiously, without apparent initiating cause but as an aging phenomenon, called idiopathic or primary osteoarthritis. In about 5% of cases, osteoarthritis of the limb may appear in younger individuals having some predisposing condition, such as macro-traumatic or repeated micro-traumatic injuries to a joint.

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  21. Examine the different types of muscular contraction and the movements that they produce

    An example of this is picking up an object. When you pick up a bag you applied a force to a movable object. When you are lifting weights you are also applying force to a movable object. It is possible that isotonic contraction can turn into isometric contraction. An example of this if you try to pick up a heavy bag. You move the bag slightly upwards (isotonic contraction), but then you stop and you can't stand up completely erect while holding the sack. At the point when the movement stopped, contraction became isometric.

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  22. Describe the process of muscle contraction from the neural stimulation to the final movement

    Motor nerves form part of the somatic nervous system, which then forms part of the peripheral nervous system. Central nervous System (Brain and spinal cord) Peripheral nervous system (Cranial and spinal nerves) Somatic nervous Autonomic nervous system System (under (under involuntary control) Voluntary control) ( Sensory neurones/ * Sensory neurones/ visceral receptors Afferent nerves (Motor neurones/ * Motor neurones/ sympathetic and Efferent nerves parasympathetic nerves ( Davis. B, Bull. R, Roscoe. J, Roscoe. D; Physical Education and the study of sport; 1997 third edition; Mosby; London' p 40 A motor neurone is started of as a cell body within the grey matter and its axon passes out of the ventral root of the spinal cord to innervate muscle cells.

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  23. Critically evaluate the effect of an impact sport and a repetitive action sport on the skeletal system of a young performer

    By participating in a high impact sport this causes microscopic fibers in the bone to shatter and grow back stronger. This is beneficial because it makes the person less prone to injury and protects the growth plate from getting damaged. As a person gets older the bone contains less collagen and becomes less dense, causing easily damaged brittle bones; however if a person has maintained strong bones throughout their life through exercise the stronger they will remain. Joints become increasingly stable and healthy because the tendons and muscles around the joints strengthen, this is positive as it prevents injury especially dislocations.

    • Word count: 762
  24. Energy Systems in the Human Body

    Overall, there is a yield of 1:1, so there has been a 0 net gain of ATP. This process can take place anaerobically, so therefore, no oxygen is required in this system. This process can only supply energy to resynthesize ATP between 8 - 10 seconds. Athletes such as Usain Bolt and best suited to this system, as their main events only last up 10 seconds, so therefore, the athlete can carrying on using this system for whole race, instead of using another system, which can take up more time and cause lactic acid. After this stage is the lactic acid system, which also takes place in the sarcoplasm.

    • Word count: 585
  25. Structure and Functions of Skeletal system

    Mandible Flat This is a U-shaped bone and forms the lower jaw. Sternum Flat It is known as the Breast Located right in the middle of your chest. Ribs Flat You have twelve pairs of ribs which protect the lungs and heart. Cervical Vertebrae Irregular The neck region of the spine. This region consists of seven vertebrae, which allows the neck to move freely.

    • Word count: 502

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