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Respiratory system

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Introduction

Mrs Campbell BTEC Sport 13F Carla Hill Assignment 4 Structure of the respiratory system Nasal Cavity The nose can vary in different shapes, size and colours. The nose is divided into the internal nasal cavity and the external nasal cavity. The two cavities are parted into the left and right cavity. The centre of this is called the nasal septum. When you breathe in, it goes threw the nose, then the air is filtered by little hairs inside the nose which trap dirt and pollen. The walls are covered in tissue inside your nasal cavity are filled with blood vessels. The heat from your blood vessels helps heat up the air that you breathe. Epiglottis This is a small flap like structure which is made of cartilage. It closes the top of the trachea when you swallow food or drink to ensure it doesn't go down into the lungs. Pharynx The pharynx is a tube like structure which connects to the nasal and oral cavities. It is also sometimes called the throat. It is a small tube that is normally around 10-13cm from the base of the skull to the end. It is a tube for food and air so special features allow food to travel down this tube into another opening for food and there is another opening for air. ...read more.

Middle

The lungs are protected by your rib cage which also protects the heart. Beneath your lungs is the diaphragm. This helps your lungs to inhale and exhale air. You cannot feel your lungs but you can feel them when you are breathing in and out. http://kidshealth.org/kid/htbw/lungs.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_lung Lobes The left and right lung is divided into lobes. The lung on the right has 3 lobes and the one on the left has 2. There is less lobes in the left lung because the heart is taking up some room where there may be one more lobe. Pleural membrane The lungs are surrounded by membranes. These are known as pleura. The membranes cover the lungs in two layers. Between the two layers is a small space. This is called the pleura cavity. Thoracic cavity From the neck to the chest is the thoracic cavity, which runs from the bottom of the neck down to the end of the ribs, or the diaphragm. This is a chamber of the chest which is protected by the thoracic wall. It is separated from the abdominal cavity by the diaphragm. BTEC Sport Level 3 Book 1 Pg 27. Visceral pleura The lungs are surrounded by two membranes. The outer layer is attached to the chest wall and this is called the parietal pleura. And the inner membrane is attached to the lung and other tissues. ...read more.

Conclusion

The breathing mechanism is called respiration. The average adult breathes between 12-20 times a minute. Tidal volume Larger volumes Smaller volumes taller people shorter people non-smokers smokers people who live at higher altitudes people who live at lower altitudes A person who is born and lives at sea level, usually has a smaller lung capacity than someone who may live up on a hill. This is because the oxygen level is lower than up on a hill. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lung_volumes Vital capacity This is the maximum amount of air which can be forced out of the lungs after maximum inspiration. This volume can be around 4,8000cm3. The volume can be measured by a spirometer. With other mental measurements, it can make a diagnosis of an underlying lung disease. An average adult has a capacity of 3 - 5 litres. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vital_capacity Residual volume Typically, the lungs are never completely empty of air. If they were, the lung may collapse. The air which is left inside your lungs after maximal expiration is called residual volume. In an average human, the volume can be around 1,200cm3. Control of breathing Neural Breathing may seem very simple, although it is very complex. It involves neurones, cells (conduct nerve impulses) and parts of the brain stem. Chemical control These factors are continually changing levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide. These are found in the medulla and in the aortic arch. BTEC National Sport Level 2 Book 1 http://www.springerlink.com/content/t500027n53745l8t/ http://www.eurosiva.org/Archive/Goteborg/Abstracts/dahan.htm http://www.nda.ox.ac.uk/wfsa/html/u02/u02_011.htm ...read more.

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