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Anatomy For BTEC Sport - bones and muscles.

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Introduction

´╗┐BTEC Level 3 in Sport November 1 2012 ________________ BTEC Level 3 in Sport UNIT 1 Anatomy Human Skeleton For humans the skeleton is a large part to the structure of the body because of all its required functions which all help to maintain the body in a safe and secure state. The human skeleton is made of 206 bones which are specifically developed and designed to perform several basic functions. At birth the human skeleton is made up of 275 different bones and as the body matures some of the bones fuse together leaving only 206 bones in the adult body. The skeleton is the internal structure that holds the human body up and with the help of the muscular system allows us to move. The skeleton includes several functions which are vitally important and essential for participation and contribution towards physical activity and movement. Without other components the skeleton would not be able to perform its functions correctly because it needs to combine with ligaments and joints otherwise it wouldn't be able to achieve the following functions: Support The skeleton helps to provide a rigid and inflexible framework to the body which in turn gives the body its shape and also provides suitable positions for attachment of skeletal muscle. Protection The skeleton provides intensive protection for all the body's internal organs to prevent any damage which occur and cause serious injury for even death. Examples of protection ain the body where the skeleton protects vital organs are: * Brain The brain is major organ in the body because ...read more.

Middle

Functionally, they act to protect the tendon and to increase its mechanical effect. An example of a sesamoid bone is the patella (knee cap, sits inside a tendon, changes the angle of pull for quadriceps muscle). The musculoskeletal system In this assignment I am going to identify the location of the major muscles in the human body, describe, explain and then attempt to analyse the function of the muscular system and the different fibre types. Location of major muscles (See diagram attached for location of the major muscles) Types of muscle There are 3 main types of muscles in the body, these are: Cardiac or heart muscle - Cardiac muscle tissue forms the wall of the heart and the muscle fibres do not get fatigued, which is needed as the heart is continually pumping blood around the body, so you would not want the muscle to fatigue. Cardiac muscle's contraction is usually not under conscious control, this means that it is involuntary which is useful as you would not want to have to keep remembering to tell your heart to pump. Smooth muscles (internal organs) - Smooth muscle tissue is in places like blood vessels, the stomach, intestines, and urinary bladder. Smooth muscle fibres are usually involuntary which means they aren't under conscious control and they are smooth to allow easy passage of food through the digestive system. Certain smooth muscle fibres like the ones in the uterus however, keep their shape and size. Skeletal muscles (striped or voluntary muscles) - Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and it is striated. ...read more.

Conclusion

and many blood capillaries (lots of 02). Type 1 is also resistant to fatigue, found in large numbers in postural muscles. Finally type 1 is needed for aerobic activities like long distance runners. Type 2a is also a red fibre and is also called a fast twitch A or fatigue resistant fibres. Type 2a contains large amounts of myoglobin and many blood capillaries. It has a high capacity for generating ATP by oxidation. It splits ATP at a very fast rate and this is why there is a high contraction velocity. Type 2a is resistant to fatigue but not as much as slow oxidative fibres (type 1). Type 2a is needed for sports such as middle distance 400-800metres or swimming. Type 2b is a white fibre and is also called fast twitch B or fatigable fibres. Type 2b contains low myoglobin content and few mitochondria. It also has few blood capillaries. Type 2b has large amounts of glycogen and splits ATP very quickly. It fatigues easily meaning it is only needed for sports like sprinting with short sharp bursts of energy. There are similarities and differences between these 3 types of fibres. Type 1 and type 2a are similar because they are both fatigue resistant, contain many blood capillaries and have a large amount of myoglobin but they are different in that type 1 is a slow twitch and type 2 a is a fast twitch. Both type 1 and type 2a are red fibres and type 2b is a white fibre. Type 1 and type 2a are released slowly and last longer whereas type 2b is for sprinters who release quickly over a short distance. ...read more.

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