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Anatomy for Sport and Exercise - Analysis of movement.

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Introduction

Anatomy for Sport and Exercise Analysis of movement A. The exercise that I will be analysing is that of a tennis player who is running forward to hit the tennis ball with her right hand and her left leg is her leading leg. The tennis players' body is leaning forward slightly and her middle is twisting to her left. The simple actions that the woman is performing become more complex when combined. Having labelled the picture, with the voluntary muscles involved in this action, the synovial joints and the different joint movements, I will now analysis the muscles involved in these joint movements. Each muscle described below is labelled on the picture of the tennis player. Superior body Sternocleidomastoid- this muscles origin is the part of the skull known as the temporal bone and the insertion for this muscle is the clavicle. (AS pe notes) The sternocleidomastoid from the right would contract to turn the head to the right, about the pivot joint and the muscle on the left would relax. Pectorals- the origin for this muscle is found on the first six ribs joining the sternum and the insertion of the muscle is at the top of the humerus. (AS pe notes) The pectorals (agonist) and the lattissimus dorsi contract to adduct the right arm, at the shoulder joint and the deltoid (antagonist) relaxes to allow the movement. ...read more.

Middle

Inferior body Gluteus maximus- the origin of this muscle is found at the ilium and sacrum and the insertion is at the femur. (AS pe notes) In this picture the gluteus maximus and hamstring are contracted to extend the hip of the right leg and in the left leg the gluteus maximus is relaxed, to allow the leg to abduct. Hamstrings- the origins of these muscles are found at the pelvis and pubis and the insertion are at the tibia and fibula. (AS pe notes) The hamstring is contracted in the right leg, which is flexing the knee joint. This makes the hamstrings the agonist and the quadriceps the antagonist, in the right leg. However the left leg is extended so the quadriceps are contracted and the hamstring are relaxed. Now the hamstrings are the antagonists and the quadriceps are the agonists. The origins for the quadriceps are the ilium and pubis and the insertions are found at the fibula, tibia, patella and femur. Sartorius- the origin for this muscle is found at the ilium and the insertion is found at the tibia. (AS pe notes) The Sartorius is the longest muscle in the body and along with the quadriceps contracts to flex hip and extend knee joint. Tibialis anterior and Extensor digitorum longus - the origin for the Tibialis anterior muscle is the tibia and the Extensor digitorum longus is attached to the fibula, these are then both attached to the metatarsals. (AS pe notes) ...read more.

Conclusion

This is the part of the nervous system that sends messages from the brain to the muscles. The part of the nervous system that sends messages from the muscles to the brain is known as the peripheral nervous system. In order to make a muscle contract a nerve impulse from the CNS is sent to a neurone or nerve cells, which either goes straight from the CNS to the muscle fibre or the neurons group together to carry the information to the muscle fibre. These groups of neurons are known as motor units and they are much more efficient at reaching the larger muscle groups to deliver the nerve impulse, to contract the muscle. When the nerve impulse reaches the muscle fibre it will send an electrical wave, which would contract the muscle fibre. As skeletal muscles are found in pairs during the contraction of one muscle the other cannot be stimulated. In order for our muscles to contract we must first have a supply of energy going to them and our nervous system assists in this. During exercise the muscle also need a larger supply of blood than they would at rest. So the nervous system also controls this by stimulating many of the vessels supplying blood to organs such as the stomach and narrows them to decrease blood flow. Reference: Name of Publication Author/s Date Pages Exercise Physiology Colin Clegg 2000 ---------------------- Sport and Exercise Science Jennifer Stafford-Brown Simon Rea John Chance 2003 ---------------------- Old As level pe notes. ------------------------ ...read more.

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