• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Barriers Affecting Ethnic Minorities in Sport

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Barriers for Ethnic Minorities in Sport In the United Kingdom, we live in a multicultural society. There are people of all races and ethnic backgrounds that take part in sport at all levels. As a result of this, people often assume that they face no problems in sport. However, there is discrimination and disadvantage in sport as there is in everyday life for ethnic minorities. In the early days of sports development, ethnic participation rates were not really known. Today most sports agencies agree that now Britain is a multicultural society, ethnic minorities represent a major potential market. Black sportspeople are encouraged into competitive and professional sport to make a living and as an avenue for upward social mobility, the black athletes that become successful also become positive role models. Ethnic groups are still under represented in coaching, managerial and organisational roles as a result of stacking. Stacking is the over or under representation of a certain racial group in certain positions e.g. there are very few black quarterbacks in the American NFL. Also this may be due to the lack of educational opportunity and aspiration for ethnic minorities. ...read more.

Middle

This may also include early negative experiences of P.E. at school. The negative perceptions about physical activity can last into adulthood, making it more difficult for these women to engage in sport. Therefore, cultural and environmental barriers seem to be the determining factor in young Muslim women's attitudes towards participation in sport. One major factor affecting participation in sport for ethnic minorities is racism. This stems from prejudice linked with the power of one racial group over another. This leads to discrimination, or unfairness. Although illegal, discrimination still exists on the grounds of colour, language and cultural differences. The Professional Football Association (PFA) set up a campaign in 1993 with the Commission for Racial Equality to 'Kick Racism out of Football'. This now operates independently and is called 'Kick it out'. The sports council and National Governing Bodies encourage non-discriminatory attitudes to fight racism. Personal racism is seen when black and ethnic minority people are made to feel unwelcome by individuals at a sports club. This obviously puts people of joining clubs and ads to the lower participation rates. Socioeconomic barriers are also lowering participation rates amongst ethnic minorities. ...read more.

Conclusion

The symbol of the campaign is the black & white interlocking wristband, as worn first in public by Thierry Henry at the World Player of the Year gala in Zurich in December 2004. The wristband was created as a symbol of camaraderie with the players and fans who share a determination to take positive action against racism in football. The campaign had support from Nike's sponsored players, including Thierry Henry, Rio Ferdinand, Ronaldhino, Ruud Van Nistelrooy, Claude Makalele, Philip Mexes, Carlos Puyol, Roberto Carlos, Christoph Metzelder, Otto Addo, Adriano and Fabio Cannavaro. Nike launched high profile TV advertising to support the campaign. Additionally, some National teams who wear Nike kit wore specially designed shirts during the campaign. Also another campaign aiming to kick racism out of football is the Kick it Out) campaign. Kick It Out works throughout the football, educational and community sectors to challenge racism and work for positive change. The campaign is supported and funded by the game's governing bodies, including founding body the Professional Footballers Association (PFA), the FA Premier League, the Football Foundation and The Football Association. With campaigns like these being promoted by the sports biggest role models like Thierry Henry, this has an extremely positive effect. The children and adults playing the sport believe if Ronaldhino and Rio Ferdinand are opposed to racism, then so should I. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill essays

  1. Choose three different target groups of sports participants. Describe and explain (P2, M2) barriers ...

    Solution Once people become older they seem to go off of sport and think that it is no longer for them however this is not the case. Many people would like to participate in sport but there aren't the facilities and teams for them to do so.

  2. Techniques, Rules and Tactics of Football

    decision that he may take in accordance with the Laws of the Game or in conformity with his duties under the terms of FIFA, confederation, member association or league rules or regulations under which the match is played. * Decision 2 In tournaments or competitions where a fourth official is

  1. Barriers Affecting Disabled People in Sport

    The overall conclusion of the report is that rather than concentrating on increasing the supply of suitable facilities or providing adapted equipment, which have been the usual responses to this problem, more needs to be done to provide people with a disability with credible information on the sports and physical

  2. Why do people take part in physical activity?

    Each half is then also divided by valves into an atrium above and a ventricle below. We therefore have a right and left atrium and a right and left ventricle. Double circulatory pump system - pulmonary circulation carries blood from the heart to the lungs and back again; systemic circulation

  1. Critically analyse your own performance in your chosen sport using suitable notational methods. Include ...

    At the start of my six-week period I identified that my off-side shots are a weakness in my batting, I tend to drag a lot of shots to leg-side, when the more appropriate shot would be on the off-side. This was evident during my first innings when I only fourteen out of fifty five shots on the offside.

  2. Psychology in Sport: Anxiety, Stress and Sports Performance

    there will be a negative but linear relationship between cognitive state anxiety and performance; the relationship between somatic anxiety and performance will resemble an inverted U, somatic anxiety will decline once performance begins, but cognitive anxiety may remain high, so long as fear of failure remains, and then cognitive anxiety

  1. Stress in Sport

    * Muscular aches and strains. * Persistent sweating. * Skin irritations or infections. For a sports performer this could relate to them when they are entering a intensifying moment in their game like a penalty kick; they begin to sweat more, their heart rate increases, which could increase their blood pressure making their muscles tense up.

  2. analysis of 2 sports : Badminton and Gaelic Football

    The types of Tempo runs are: * Continuous Tempo - long slow runs at 50-70% of maximum heart rate. This places demands on muscle and liver glycogen. The normal response by the system is to enhance muscle and liver glycogen storage capacities and glycolytic activity associated with these processes.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work