• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Body In Action

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Short & long term effects on the cardiovascular & respiratory systems Cardiovascular system This system is for transporting oxygen, food and waste products around the body. The cardiovascular system includes the heart, the network of blood vessels and, of course, the blood that transports vital materials around the body. The heart is about the size of a closed fist and it comprises of four chambers and consists of mostly the cardiac muscle. The heart is seen as two separate pumps, which work together and the main function is to pump blood around the body. The right side send deoxygenated blood to the lungs and the left side send oxygenated blood to the organs of the body. A muscular wall called a septum separates the two pumps. The two chambers at the top part of the heart are the atria. The two lower chambers are the ventricles. There are many blood vessels associated with the heart. The top and the both venae cavae bring deoxygenated blood from the body to the right atrium. The pulmonary veins bring oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. The pulmonary artery takes deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs. The aorta takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body. It is the same as other muscles for the fact that it requires a blood supply. There are four valves within the heart - two separating the atria from the ventricles, and two in the arteries carrying blood from the ventricles. To stop the backflow of blood, the valves work only one way. The blood that flows from the atria to the ventricles pushes the valves open. There are six main valves in the heart. The first is the tricuspid valve this is between the right atrium and the right ventricle. The next is the bicuspid valve and this lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle. ...read more.

Middle

The pleural membrane that centres the pleural cavity surrounds each of the two lungs. The pleural cavity contains pleural fluid, which reduces friction on the lungs when breathing. The diaphragm borders the bottom of the lungs and is a sheet of skeletal muscle. A practical investigation was then carried out for both the cardiovascular system and the respiratory system. We did an aerobic test and an anaerobic test. The first one we did was the aerobic test, which was done for 16 minutes and had to be 65% of the maximum heart of the participant. A number of results were taken before the investigation was carried out. The first was Tom Mustoes resting rate so that we could see how hard he is working. The second was the O2 room level, which was 18.89 and also the CO2 level, which was 0.16. Also his resting lactate level was taken and it was 7.49. To get this test right we used a number of pieces of equipment. The heart rate monitor was used to strap round the participants diaphragm so that his heart could be monitored at a regular rate. Douglas bags were used every four minutes so that we could access how mush oxygen and carbon dioxide intake there was. Also at this stage the blood lactate is taken to see how well the oxygen is going through the blood. Aerobic Minutes HR (BPM) RPE VE FE02 FEC02 Blood Lactate 1 114 7 2 VOID 7 02.74 15.36 4.16 4.28 3 VOID 7 4 126 7 5 107 7 6 118 7 02.43 15.39 4.22 2.16 7 145 8 8 124 8 9 120 9 10 126 8 02.75 15.52 3.71 VOID 11 131 9 12 125 9 13 123 9 14 122 9 02.75 15.21 4.34 VOID 15 129 9 16 135 10 When looking at the table I have produced I have circled the anomalies and I will now tell you why that was the reason. ...read more.

Conclusion

If you do all these types of training your muscles will get bigger and stronger and you will get quicker and will be less likely to get injured as well. Biological adaptations are a long-term process and most of the adaptations mentioned take months or years to establish completely. Once established, these adaptations promote greater general and specific fitness, which will remain with the performer even if exercise stops. As an anaerobic performer if you train for a long time and get very strong and very quick and powerful and then just stop most adaptations would return to the untrained state but again this would be a long-term process. Conversely, although intense daily training can increase performance dramatically over a short period of time, there are no biological adaptations, which would maintain fitness though once exercise had stopped. Increased flexibility also is a big advantage because it means the performer can perform short bursts off high energy and high-pressured movements whilst having a less chance of getting injured. They will also be able to make movements that they may not of been able to make and this will help them with their performance and well as making them more flexible it will also improve their speed and their injury prevention. So to conclude the anaerobic and aerobic systems are both extremely different and have completely different adaptations when they are trained for a long time. The anaerobic is all about power and all about doing things in a short space of time using up a lot of energy where as on the other hand aerobic is using a lot of energy over a long period of time and doing things a lot less powerfully and under less pressure. When performing at the top level of you sport both of these are as hard as each other because both ask different physical requirements and sometimes both, even though they are completely contrasting, can have the exact same outcome on the performers body. ?? ?? ?? ?? Steven Snape Leanne Holbert 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Effects of energy intake and expenditure on performance

    steroids are banned in certain competitions such as the NFL. In some sports such as rowing, an enormous amount of calories are burnt off during a simple five minutes competition- this means that each athlete will compensate to begin with the amount of calories that they expect to use up;

  2. A.S Personal exercise program for netball

    Improves strength in the gluteals which will assist endurance. Leg Extension - hamstring curl Quadriceps Sit on apparatus with back against padded back support. Place front of lower leg under padded lever. Position knee articulation at same axis as lever. Move lever forward by extending knees until leg are straight.

  1. Physiology Within Sport

    For the ATP to release energy chemical bonds need to be broken off between the phosphates to create the molecule Adenosine diphosphate (di meaning two) by the breakage of the phosphate energy is released which can be used to contract the muscles.

  2. The skeletal system in the body and what it does within the body

    I was able to identify how the skeleton is split into two types of skeleton: the Axial skeleton and the Appendicular skeleton and I then could identify how they work in unison to provide the body with a frame and therefore protection for vital organs.

  1. The purpose of a nutritional assessment is to categorise individuals and evaluate their health, ...

    Both under nutrition and over nutrition have identifiable and visible symptoms. Under Nutrition Under nutrition is the consequence of consuming too few essential nutrients or using or excreting them more rapidly than they can be replaced. The most common attributes that are seen in under nutrition are thin hair, aching

  2. A level Project, Personal Exercise Program on Netball.

    Compared to my performer, this has a more weakening effect on the game. The legs were situated a wide distance apart and therefore caused the performer to sometimes lose balance. The right foot was placed to the ground as the dominant foot and then the toes of the left foot were placed on the ground.

  1. Discuss the short term and long-term effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system, the ...

    The diaphragm also moves upwards in order to increase the expiratory volume. Over exertion during exercise can mean that not enough oxygen is being inspired. A lack of oxygen to the brain can cause the athlete to collapse. The long-term effects of exercise on the breathing system are; increased lung capacity.

  2. Free essay

    Body In Action

    Because the lower limbs have to bear the weight of the human body - reaction forces at the feet can be 5-10 times the body weight during sprinting and jumping - the bones of the pelvic girdle, the thigh, and the lower leg are massive and have a network of fibers and many strong muscles to maximize strength and stability.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work