• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Cardiovascular responses When or before exercising, a number of changes happen within the cardiovascular system, these are initial responses.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Physiology task1 The heart is an organ made up of muscle that pumps blood throughout the body. The size of a person's heart is approximately as big as their clenched fist. The heart is an extremely strong muscle, and is able to contract and relax rhythmically throughout life. P1 Cardiovascular responses When or before exercising, a number of changes happen within the cardiovascular system, these are initial responses. For example 1minute before exercise adrenaline may cause the heart rate to rise from the increased adrenaline because you may be nervous. 1 minute into the exercise heart rate increases quickly, veins and arteries widen to get more blood and oxygen to the muscles because they are using up the oxygen quickly, blood vessels rise to the surface to cool the blood down, start sweating and stroke volume increase. Heart rate Heart rate changes according to the needs and demands of the body. It increases during exercise to deliver extra oxygen to muscles and removes the excess amount of carbon dioxide present. When at rest the normal adult heart beats around 75BPM. The maximum heart rate of a person is can be worked out using this formula: 220 - age of the person. There is an anticipatory increase in heart rate which occurs following impulses coming from the brains command system. This happens not only during exercise but also during the period of time before athletes are about to exercise. ...read more.

Middle

Therefore exercise increases demands on the respiratory and circulatory system. If either of these systems fails to meet the demands set by the body the athlete will feel out of breath. This is generally due to the heart not being able to move enough blood the muscles and lungs, and not the inability of the respiratory system to provide enough oxygen. Intercostal muscles During the breathing process, the intercostal muscles contract, causing the ribs and the sternum to move upwards and outwards. While this process takes place, the diaphragm muscles contract, causing the diaphragm to move down so the diaphragm can effectively flatten. The combined movements of the ribs, sternum and diaphragm cause the lungs to increase in volume, while the air pressure within the lungs decreases s below the outside air pressure. The result is that the outside air pressure forces air from the outside environment into the lungs. During exercise forced breathing is used. This differs from normal breathing because the internal intercostals muscles contract, moving the ribs and sternum up and outwards more forcibly. In exercise and performance, the strength and efficiency of the intecostal muscles are increased because of the work they have to do. Tidal volume Tidal volume is the volume of air inhaled and exhaled in one breath. Exercise results in an increase in tidal volume over 1 minute (minute ventilation). ...read more.

Conclusion

molecule and a phosphate. When a molecule of ATP is combined with water, the last phosphate group splits off and energy is released. Creatine phosphate system ATP and creatine phosphate (or PCr) make up the ATP-PCr system. PCr is broken down releasing a phosphate and energy, which is then used to rebuild ATP. The ATP-PCr system can operate with or without oxygen, and is said to be anaerobic. During the first five seconds of exercise the ATP-CPr system is relied on. ATP lasts only a few seconds, then PCr buffering the drop in ATP for another 5-8 seconds or so. The ATP-PCr system can sustain all out exercise for 3-15 seconds and during this time power output is at its greatest, so it would be used in weightlifting. Lactic acid system Glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose and is made up of a series of enzymatic reactions. The carbohydrates we eat supply the body with glucose, which can be stored as glycogen in the muscles and liver. The end product of gycolysis is pyruvic acid. The lactic acid system kicks in after ATP-PCr system and last roughly between 55-90 seconds. It is used in high intensity exercise such as a 400m race. Anaerobic glycolysis Anaerobic glycolysis is the process by which the normal pathway of glycolysis is routed to produce lactic acid. It happens at times when energy is required in the absence of qxygen. It is vital for tissues with high energy needs, insufficient oxygen supply or in the absence of oxidative enzymes. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. In this assignment I will explain and analyse the initial responses to exercise. It ...

    This is done by involuntary smooth muscles in the arterioles contracting too change the diameter. The onset of exercise has the effect of increasing the blood pressure because if heart rate and cardiac output are increased, blood pressure will automatically increase.

  2. Physiology Within Sport

    and then during activity and then after activity and the table looked like so: Client 1 At rest During Activity After Activity Difference (Rest - after) Tidal Volume 0.44L n/a 0.92L 0.48 Breathing Rate 17 54 28 11 From looking at this table it is evident that the breathing rate

  1. Skeletal System and Joints

    Articulates with, the scaphiod, trapezoid, second meta-carpal and the first meta-carpal. Trapezoid is the smallest bone in its row. It has a Wedge shaped structure. It has a broader end forming a dorsal and a narrower end forming the pulmar.

  2. effects of exercise on cardiovascular system

    Therefore when the heart rate and stroke volume increases results in the cardiac output increasing. The cardiac output will continue to increase until the maximum level of exercise if being carried out. Blood pressure increases depending on the intensity of exercise being carried out.

  1. The purpose of a nutritional assessment is to categorise individuals and evaluate their health, ...

    Waist to hip ratio has been shown to be related to the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure and diabetes. The formula for calculation waist to hip ratio is (waist girth / hip girth) = WHR. To find out someone's waist-to-hip ratio, measure the waist at its narrowest point, and then measure the hips at the widest point.

  2. Anatomy and Physiology.

    The hip is capable of a wide range of movement, including flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation and circumduction. Therefore this is why there is much more range of movement in the hip joint (a ball and socket joint) than the knee joint (a hinge joint).

  1. Discuss the short term and long-term effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system, the ...

    athletes in order to supply the organs with sufficient oxygen at a sufficient rate. The heart size can be increased by up to 40% in some endurance athletes therefore up to 40% increased cardiac output. The increased size in the heart also increases the stroke volume.

  2. A level Project, Personal Exercise Program on Netball.

    Pivoting allows other team members to lose defenders and make passing more successful thus keeping possession. Qualitative Data Sheet for the Core Skills in Netball. Competition Skill Stance and Body Position Preparation Skill Action Effect on Game.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work