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AS and A Level: Contemporary Studies

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Writing about the media in sport

  1. 1 You should recognize the 4 key roles of the media in sport : to educate, advertise, inform and entertain.
  2. 2 • Give SPECIFIC examples of each form of media. For example, transworld sport is very educational regarding different cultural sports and activities.
  3. 3 Acknowledge the advantages of the media and the powerful role they have in our culture, such as providing entertaining coverage of Olympics or big rival matches
  4. 4 Acknowledge the disadvantages of the media and the potentially counter-productive role they have, such as sensationalism regarding footballers and their relationships.
  5. 5 Acknowledge the ‘media’ as a business and in some cases, with a solely profiteering approach. However beware of over generalising and omitting recognition of the media (whether profit making or not) in providing an invaluable professional and leisure service to sports people specifically and the general population.

Writing about Outdoor and Adventurous Activities (OAA)

  1. 1 This is an area of the National Curriculum that is often avoided or done minimally – students should be able to explain the reasons for this : cost, facilities, access, risk, etc
  2. 2 The difference between real (a situation where actual harm to the participants is possible) and perceived risk (a safe situation where a feeling of thrill / fear is constructed) is often confused in essay answers.
  3. 3 Many (but not all) OAAs need to have VERY strict health & safety procedures and protocols in place. The increase in safety requirements has been as a result of tragedies such as Lyme Bay occurring. Laws have been enforced to ensure the safety of participants.
  4. 4 When writing about the benefits of OAA, make sure specific examples are given. There is a mental benefit of participation in orienteering as it is developing decision-making processes.
  5. 5 The Adventurous Activities Licensing Authority (AALA) is a key organisation that assesses the safety of activity centres and allows them to offer sessions to the public.

  • Marked by Teachers essays 2
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  1. Talent ID report

    This can be slightly stressful, especially as the athletes are quite young, and are still developing, physically and mentally. Also it can ruin confidence of some youths, however overall this stage is quite selective and only few people are selected at this stage, as the level of performance that is required is evident when selecting the players. Commonly, like most of the stages the players are also recorded, in games or drills, without them being too aroused by it, so that they can perform in full confidence and in a stress free situation.

    • Word count: 2631
  2. The development of equipment and facilities

    The centre runs residential courses for schools, adults and families including a wide range of activities on offer such as abseiling, survival skills, high ropes, zip wire, shelter building and camp craft, orienteering, navigation and moorland expeditions, beach days and team building and problem solving. www.milladventure.co.uk Knapp House Activity Centre This centre is a family run business situated near Bideford in North Devon. The centre runs many land and water based activities such as climbing, tree hoist, crate stack, low ropes, slide, team challenge, team building, pedal carts, tunnelling, coastal walks, crab and boating, ringo rides, canoe drills, waterskiing, surfing, and pool & lake sessions.

    • Word count: 2029
  3. Mountain Biking

    Brakes can also help to re-direct your bike and can help maintain a good balance when needed. There are many types of brakes such as: * V-Brake * Rim Brake * Disc Brake The oldest and the standard type of brake for most bicycles is the 'V-Brake'. V-Brakes are light, cheap and take no time to install but aren't really suitable for most off road riding as they are prone to rusting and hardly work well once introduced to water or mud. But most mountain bikes usually use the 'Disc Brake' as they are the most efficient and work well under the harshest of conditions and aren't hindered by water or mud.

    • Word count: 2341
  4. About Netball

    what he actually invented was basketball. Women's basketball began 2 days later when 2 female teachers saw the game but it wasn't really until 1895 that Netball was established it was first played in 1895 in England at Madame Ostenburgs College. There were no standard rules at that time it was played with either 9 or 5 players in each team. The beginning of the 20th century the game started to become popular in the British Commonwealth countries. In 1957 Australia toured England and discussions took place about standardizing the rules of the game.

    • Word count: 2148
  5. Female Participation in Sport

    "Bicycling has done more to emancipate women than anything else in the world. I stand and rejoice every time I see a women ride on a wheel. It gives women a feeling of freedom and self reliance."This was said by Susan B. Anthony a suffragist in 1896. It explains in merely a few sentences the struggles of women in sports of the years and the fact it's a suffragette saying it makes it effective as they are the people that fought for woman's rights. So as this is an interesting topic area the investigation topic is why it is harder for female to participate in sport than to males.

    • Word count: 2948
  6. Free essay

    Alalyse the current application of performance in technology to enhance sport performance

    SportsCode is highly sophisticated performance analysis software, the ultimate tool for performance recording, in-depth analysis and individual player development. It is used during performances for comparisons and fine-tuning, then afterwards to coach players or teams with a comprehensive database of video and statistical information. Video Analysis SportsCode is leading the world in intelligent Sports Video Analysis. The functionality and features jammed into this product make it the most powerful sports video tool available today: * Powerful Access to Information * Statistical Analysis * Biomechanical Analysis Frequency Lists SportsCode's Frequency List gives you a complete snapshot of what is happening during a game.

    • Word count: 2306
  7. history of sport

    Employees simply took the day off to go to prize fights or other such events as they always had done. The initial part of the 19th century saw many people abandon work to attend Shrove Tuesday to enjoy the manly game of football. Furthermore, the increase of steam power resulted in the dictation of fixed hours and shifts of work. The rapid expansion of industrialisation due to the mass exodus of people from the countryside to the towns resulted in recreational spaces making way for factories and cheap accommodation as towns grew rapidly in size.

    • Word count: 2172
  8. Free essay

    sociology and its application to sport

    Weight management, social interaction and enjoyment of exercise are also common reasons for participation. Concerns about body shape were the main reasons for the participation for women. A number of studies reported pressure to conform to popular ideals of beauty as important reasons for teenage girls being physically active. Girls were also more likely to participate if the activity emphasised fun and enjoyment and provided the opportunity for social interaction with friends. Along with general health benefits, older people identified the importance of physical activity in staving off the effects of ageing. Social dancing was successful in maintaining participation in older people.

    • Word count: 2300
  9. What are the Physiological differences between male and female athletes

    Muscular Strength and Power The males greater lean body mass is a major determinant of their greater muscular strength. However these differences are removed when either measure is expressed relative to lean body mass. It has been widely accepted that women show less response to strength training than men, although research does not support this claim. Research has shown that there is Very little difference seen in the response to different modes of progressive resistance strength training. Men and women experience similar relative strength gains when training under the same programme.

    • Word count: 2985
  10. local and national provision for boxing

    structure of the ABA of England. The Divisions (numbers of Clubs affiliated) Counties can be seen in the Appendix. The sport has a competitive base of 8,496 registered boxers (see table below), behind which are a further 20,000 individuals who deploy its training methods as part of health-related fitness programmes. All of these participants are members of boxing clubs. Boxing Clubs operate in every part of England and in many large conurbations (e.g. Liverpool), and are recognised for their significant contribution to the welfare of youngsters who might well involve themselves in criminal activity. Registered Boxers Clubs Coaches Officials Seniors Juniors Total Eastern 269 298 567 40 111 51 Home 102 209 311 35 83 17 London 619 605

    • Word count: 2774
  11. Sport Society IVA

    One of the problems in measuring the true economic value of sport is that much economic activity takes place in the voluntary sector. This is a problem because volunteers usually offer their services free of charge, which makes conventional economic measurements such as the monetary value of labour meaningless. As part of its research into the size and scope of the voluntary sector the sports council solved this problem by applying an average wage rate of �8.31 per hour to the work of various sport volunteers.

    • Word count: 2550
  12. Nutrition - Hydration

    Water plays a key role in temperature regulation within the body. During exercise water in the blood absorbs the heat and then carries it to the skin where it is lost in the air as sweat. Water in the form of sweat helps to cool the body when it evaporates on the surface of the skin. When we do not have enough water to regulate body temperature in the initial stages we become dizzy and light headed, suffer from nausea and in more serious cases suffer from heat stroke, hypothermia and can even die.

    • Word count: 2559
  13. sports coaching logbook

    In basketball your players are not physically lasting the whole game, you notice that there anaerobically fit but not aerobically fit so you change there fitness regime to adapt to a more sprint related game. In rugby you have a young player that is a much higher standard than the rest of his team and finds training easy, you condition your session to meet his needs and make it harder for him. Innovator In football the opposition changes there formation to 3 at the back, you tell the wingers to adapt to this and attack the flanks.

    • Word count: 2967
  14. Sports In Society

    This includes staff salaries and personnel, office costs, communications, servicing and repairs, general postage, printing and stationary, office sundry, marketing and publicity, IT, finance and consultancy, bank and credit card charges, depreciation and more... Looking at this the BMC have to pay for a lot staff but they're expenditure is not even half of the RYA's expenditure. This means that more people work or prefer to work for the RYA. I think this is due with the activity as sailing is more popular and enjoyable.

    • Word count: 2194
  15. You Remove Physical Education from Curriculum your in Danger of Removing One Most Powerful Influences on Children's Lives"

    If we try and remove physical education from the curriculum it will affect the numbers of children who take part in sport on a recreational basis. The first opportunity that most people get of sport is through P.E and so without this in the curriculum it would mean that it would reduce the amount of children who take up sport at clubs. When children take part in high quality physical education it will help to build an interest in them so that they will take part in sport outside of school hours and after they have left school.

    • Word count: 2992
  16. drugs in sport

    (Concise Oxford English Dictionary 2004) The philosophy behind dugs in sport is complex as there are many different philosophies that people will take. One reason is because of their desire to win. The win at all costs theory is rife throughout sport at all levels. The fact that drugs are used widely throughout sport is because of this theory. If a competitor thinks that he will be able to get the edge on any of his opponents he will take it.

    • Word count: 2804
  17. I have been asked to prepare a report compiling information for local clubs on the sports industry locally and nationally. I have decided to select 2 sports (football and tennis)

    The 'pitch' was not a defined size with a parameter, but included streets, fields, and village squares. http://www.footballnetwork.org/dev/historyoffootball/history8_18.asp Scale and Economic of Football Football is a well known sport with both males and females. Football is a very successful sport and it is at its highest that it has ever been, in terms of participation rates. The game has more spectators, participants, revenues and media interest than at any time in its history. The FA, the governing body of football in England, is responsible for developing and regulating the game at all levels from international football to the grassroots.

    • Word count: 2345
  18. principles of coaching.Describe the roles, skills and techniques used by two successful coaches

    In his role as a manger he needs to act as a friend by being there for players when needed, make sure players keep their feet on the ground, and act as a friend to motivate players. Arsene wenger is not the best at personally managing as he does not demonstrate good leadership skills, but he does his best to ensure that players reach and play at their full potential for example he has brought a lot of relatively unknown players and has made them stars such as Thierry Henry, Patrick Vieira, Nicolas Anelka and many more.

    • Word count: 2759
  19. Examine the issues that are faced by clubs and policy makers in an attempt to encourage young people to continue to participate in an active lifestyle.

    The relevance of this assertion to initial child participation in sport is demonstrated by the study of Cote (1999) which stated "during the sampling years parents were responsible for getting their children interested in sport" (Cote, 1999: 401). Thus parents are the initiators to sport participation, responsible for the activities they are exposed to and the key influence in whether children move on to the specializing stage of development. Cote's (1999) study showed that in the sampling phase parents main emphasis "was to have their children experience fun and excitement through sport" (Cote, 1999: 401).

    • Word count: 2546
  20. Explain why all athletes will respond differently in different situations

    * RIVALDO: Possibly one of the best players in the world at the time, and one of the most famous players in the world, in one split decision went from a footballing God to a second rate actor, and with it lost all credibility. Turkish footballer Hakaan Unsal kicked the ball in frustration at Rivaldo who was due to take a corner kick, Unsal was frustrated as the team where being beaten, unfortunately for him the ball struck Rivaldo, who immediately went to ground holding his chest.

    • Word count: 2339
  21. A look into social exclusion, the barriers women face in terms of participation whilst reflecting on an initiative/case study to prevent this exclusion.

    It is essential to firstly introduce the commonly used term social exclusion by defining it. In complex terms, Madanipour et al. (1998) describe social exclusion as 'a multi-dimensional process, in which various forms of exclusion are combined: participation in decision making and political process, access to employment and material resources, and integration into common cultural processes. When combined, they create acute forms of exclusion that find a spatial manifestation in particular neighbourhoods.' This for most people is a definition which is far too intricate, the idea of social exclusion is under the surface a difficult term to define however most individuals understand the term to an extent.

    • Word count: 2334
  22. This essay aims to discuss the possibility of legalising all performance-enhancing drugs. In order to provide a balanced argument, the main issues surrounding the use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport must first be taken into account

    Due to the recent increase of media coverage of the issue, the public may be forgiven for thinking that the use of drugs in sport is a modern-day issue. This could not be further from the truth. In Ancient Greece, athletes would "...use extracts of mushrooms and plant seeds"1 as a method of enhancing their performance. The Roman period saw "chariot racers mix drugs in the feed of their horses to make them run faster..."2 and gladiators being doped in order to make their fights more entertaining for the audience.

    • Word count: 2337
  23. Local and National Essay - Football

    The funds raised will be split equally between all the teams allowing them to buy things such as new balls, bibs, cones, tracksuits, anything that will help take the club forward. The main funding for the team usually comes through one of the parents businesses/companies though as they will try and get the company to sponsor their children's team and give some money towards buying the kit and other things that it might be needed for. Disabled Football The FA supports six international disability squads for players with differing kinds of disabilities.

    • Word count: 2599
  24. Out of Darkness Comes Light

    That was the base of their friendship, the fact that they were both the victims of bullying. Tariq made his way over to the swings in the corner of the playground, avoiding the stares from the rudeboys who were sitting on the bench the other side of the park most likely smoking cannabis. Marik was normally here first because his bus stop was just round the block but it was Tariq's turn to play the waiting game today. Tariq started to count the buses going past him on the road opposite him when Marik turned the corner.

    • Word count: 2580
  25. You are to develop and discuss what requirements are needed to carry out effective, enjoyable and safe climbing/ walking for groups (beginners and intermediates).

    (The British Mountaineering Council, 2003d. and Sport Coach UK, 2003.) The BMC provides comprehensive insurance cover to all persons participating in climbing and mountaineering activities. There are also numerous qualifications available through the UK Mountain Leader Training Boards (MLTB). As a leader one should encourage and guide participants to accept responsibility for their own behaviour. (Sports Coach UK, 2003.) Mountaineering activities are dangerous with a risk of personal injury or death. The freedom to face, assess and manage this risk is one of the factors that attracts people to take part.

    • Word count: 2715

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Analyse the effects that staging a major sporting event can have on an area.

    "As you can see from my conclusion, the question asked in this report is of a complex nature and has no simple answer. I used case studies covering a range of scales and locations in order to make as accurate a judgement as possible. However I could only use a limited number due to the length of time I had to carry out my research and compile this report. To fully investigate the issue I would need to carry out my research on a much larger scale, covering a greater time period and range of events."

  • Discuss the various systems for nurturing elite sports talent

    "In conclusion, there are many various systems for nurturing elite sports talent, some of these more successful than others. However, there are many reasons as to why some of these could be overall detrimental to a country, whether it may be because it is seen as a waste of money, or because it involves bad treatment of the children involved. On the other hand, systems for nurturing elite sports talent can be seen as beneficial because it improves an athlete's performance and gives them a much better chance of winning."

  • "Sport is precious it shouldn't be abused by commercial interests". To what extent is this true in sport today?

    "In conclusion I think that perhaps there are some aspects that make commercialisation a bad thing in sport, but I think that the good that comes out of it by far outweighs the bad. I think that sport is precious, but will not be spoiled by commercial interests. Contrary to this, I think that commercialisation makes sport appear more of an attractive career and therefore t attracts a larger amount of people to play professionally. And I think that the quality of athletes has greatly increased due to the incentives that sponsorships bring about. There could be an argument to say that this increased competition has spoiled sport, because it does incite cheating in sport in order to win. Again, using the 100m sprint final as an example. The margin for error in this race is so small, and the huge difference between the prize for second place and first place makes the race so much more competitive, that cheating is becoming more and more common. So perhaps to some extent we could say that the increased financial gain from being a professional athlete has spoiled sport to some extent."

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