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AS and A Level: Contemporary Studies

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Writing about the media in sport

  1. 1 You should recognize the 4 key roles of the media in sport : to educate, advertise, inform and entertain.
  2. 2 • Give SPECIFIC examples of each form of media. For example, transworld sport is very educational regarding different cultural sports and activities.
  3. 3 Acknowledge the advantages of the media and the powerful role they have in our culture, such as providing entertaining coverage of Olympics or big rival matches
  4. 4 Acknowledge the disadvantages of the media and the potentially counter-productive role they have, such as sensationalism regarding footballers and their relationships.
  5. 5 Acknowledge the ‘media’ as a business and in some cases, with a solely profiteering approach. However beware of over generalising and omitting recognition of the media (whether profit making or not) in providing an invaluable professional and leisure service to sports people specifically and the general population.

Writing about Outdoor and Adventurous Activities (OAA)

  1. 1 This is an area of the National Curriculum that is often avoided or done minimally – students should be able to explain the reasons for this : cost, facilities, access, risk, etc
  2. 2 The difference between real (a situation where actual harm to the participants is possible) and perceived risk (a safe situation where a feeling of thrill / fear is constructed) is often confused in essay answers.
  3. 3 Many (but not all) OAAs need to have VERY strict health & safety procedures and protocols in place. The increase in safety requirements has been as a result of tragedies such as Lyme Bay occurring. Laws have been enforced to ensure the safety of participants.
  4. 4 When writing about the benefits of OAA, make sure specific examples are given. There is a mental benefit of participation in orienteering as it is developing decision-making processes.
  5. 5 The Adventurous Activities Licensing Authority (AALA) is a key organisation that assesses the safety of activity centres and allows them to offer sessions to the public.

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  1. What factors contribute to make a good leader and how might your style of leadership vary to be successful when involved in individual, racket and team activities?

    There was an immense pressure for him to help lead the England football team to victory. However as he failed, he resigned as captain, and is no longer on the England squad. He can make play happen but on the pitch, he does not show authority as a leader. Unlike Liverpool's captain Steven Gerrard, he shows authority and leadership when on the pitch, by communicating with his team mates whilst playing. Steven Gerrard is one of the most successful captains at Liverpool F.C because he can motivate his team to do well and win. A prime example of this is Liverpool FC vs.

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  2. Fitts & Posner Coursework

    There are 3 stages of learning according to Fitts and Posner. They are: Cognitive v Associative v Autonomous Cognitive This is the initial stage of learning and is essential if the learner is to process successful through the other stages and is to move a stage where the skill can be performed. The cognitive stage involves formation of a mental picture of a skill. The most efficient way is from a demonstration, which allows them to see the key requirements and to work through the performance mentally. Visual guidance is one of the best ways to make others understand, and so that the person learning can see the correct method to perform the skill.

    • Word count: 1552
  3. Local and National Provision for Rugby Union - Dorset

    Some secondary schools also have house systems in place, in such schools, inter-house competitions take place. Bournemouth school is an example of this, a inter house rugby competition is held every year between the five houses, this competition runs for all age groups separately. This can then be developed into selective, school representative squads. Schools within the same area often organise friendly fixtures, developing the squad further, E.G. St. Peters school in Bournemouth organise a 7 aside tournament every year.

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  4. Discuss the differences between skill ability and technique and explain how you would structure practices to enhance these compounds of fitness.

    Technique is described as a method of performance in an art that requires skill for mastery of a sport; it can be learnt and improved upon with practice. There are many different kinds of skill: Cognitive skills: these are intellectual skills and involve a thought process. One example of this is the measuring of someone's jump in the triple jump. Perceptual skills: these involve interpreting a stimulus. This is when we see something in a sporting situation and how our brain interprets it.

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  5. How do government bodies cater for sport development at grass roots level?

    The RFU have 2 main schemes for encouraging participation at grassroots level. The main one is tag rugby which is a kind of mix of rugby league and rugby union which will develop into rugby union. The rules of tag rugby can be found in (appendix 4). The other RFU scheme to raise participation at grassroots level is, beach rugby. In the Bournemouth area there is an annual beach rugby tournament which is usually held by Boscombe pier, it is usually organised and run by Bournemouth's sports development team, the RFU, leisure rugby and Oakmedians rugby football club.

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  6. Discuss how information processing varies between individual, team and racquet athletics.

    The effect these factors have on a performer will vary from individual, racquet and team sports. The time that you have available to process the incoming stimuli differs in each sport. For example in rugby, which is externally paced, you have a small amount of time to process the stimuli and make a decision because there are usually many defenders around you. Tennis players also have very little time to react because the ball is usually travelling at a high speed and if they don't make a decision and return the ball they will lose the point.

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  7. We Gave Sport to The World - Social Aspects

    However, there are some similarities, which include: * Executive boards and officers * Elected by clubs through local, regional and county representatives * May have separate organisations in the four home nations (England, Scotland, Wales and N.Ireland * Many still have separate organisations for men and women Within the UK alone there is around 300 governing bodies some of which are well known E.g. The Football Association and The Lawn Tennis Association and some of which are not, E.g. The British Korfball Association and The British Sub Aqua Association.

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  8. The Sports Industry

    It is a six-rink green and is used by both the members of the Carlton Indoor Bowls Club and members of the public. The club consists of three sections Men's, Ladies and Juniors. The club has also being provided with two wheelchairs for any disabled people who wish to take up the sport. Membership is available to anyone costing an annual subscription of �30 for adults and �10 for juniors. The membership gives you a complimentary annual membership to the Leisure Centre. Ordinary Rink Fees are �1.60 per person for 2-hour sessions and match fees are �3.50 per person. Mr.

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  9. Free essay

    sociology and its application to sport

    Weight management, social interaction and enjoyment of exercise are also common reasons for participation. Concerns about body shape were the main reasons for the participation for women. A number of studies reported pressure to conform to popular ideals of beauty as important reasons for teenage girls being physically active. Girls were also more likely to participate if the activity emphasised fun and enjoyment and provided the opportunity for social interaction with friends. Along with general health benefits, older people identified the importance of physical activity in staving off the effects of ageing. Social dancing was successful in maintaining participation in older people.

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  10. What are the Physiological differences between male and female athletes

    Muscular Strength and Power The males greater lean body mass is a major determinant of their greater muscular strength. However these differences are removed when either measure is expressed relative to lean body mass. It has been widely accepted that women show less response to strength training than men, although research does not support this claim. Research has shown that there is Very little difference seen in the response to different modes of progressive resistance strength training. Men and women experience similar relative strength gains when training under the same programme.

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  11. What are the benefits of London and England hosting 2012 Olympics?

    Some examples in the past where this happened was in the Berlin games in which Hitler tried to use the games as propaganda and also the eastern bloc. Hosting the Olympics also makes the public feel very patriotic for England's athletes, this will create sporting models which children will model themselves on and progressively get better trying to achieve what there roll models have achieved. Another advantage of roll models is that if the roll model is of a different ethnic background and is a minority in the country then there will be less racism towards that minority because people would look up at the roll model and accept him/her for whoever they are.

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  12. Local and national provision

    With a strong classical ballet influence, in its purest technical sense, the movement is generally very fluid and ballet, although it does include the dynamic highlights and tricks of jazz dance, with isolations, kicks and leaps. Now, most styles once seen as Modern Dance are normally classified as being Contemporary Dance, Jazz Dance or sometimes, Classical Jazz or Modern Jazz (notebook. About school) In London when 4 years children go to primary school they can start practice dance. Haslemere Primary School in London has got dance lesson in evening. On Tuesday for years 3-6 and on Wednesday foe years 5-6.

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  13. implication of resource

    Football boots help with a players grip, acceleration and turning ability. Footballs have had technological advancements such as having air retention system, being high density and having a high abrasion surface which provides extra durability. The match balls played with in the premiership is precision engineered to exact standards to ensure that it is produced to within 3g of its ideal weight and to an exact circumference of 68.5cm. The benefits of the newer footballs are the increased swerve that the ball offers and a better accuracy of passing. The football boots worn by British teams' right up to the fifties weighed around 550 grams, and the heaviest part was the steel toe cap.

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  14. Free essay

    Why nike has become such a leading sports transnational corporation.

    Nike may owe some of its success to a highly recognisable brand logo, which is known as the 'Swoosh'. This logo was not a highly drawn out search with millions spent on graphic designers, it was a simple stroke of luck by company founder, Phil Knight. In 1971, he supplemented his income from the company that turned into Nike by teaching an accounting class at Portland State University. Carolyn Davidson, a mere student of graphic design, was in the hallway when Knight became intrigued and offered a small amount of money in return for some quick design work for his company, as he had representatives from Japan to impress.

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  15. Issues facing American sport in the last 50 years.

    Even in the NCAA, college athletes are now being tested1 to ensure that no participant has an artificially induced advantage. Doping and other forms of unfair advantage have been under scrutiny of the IOC since its joining of the IAAF in 1967. The International Association of Athletics Federations was the first international governing body of sport to take the situation seriously. In 1928 they banned participants from doping, but with little in the way of testing available they had to rely on the word of the athlete that they were clean.

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  16. Local and National Provision - UK

    Community Investment Fund (CIF) - this is the National Lottery funding available through and managed by the regional offices of Sport England. This funding is awarded through an open application process. CIF funding, unlike the national Investment funding, is awarded through an open application process. There are also registered sports charity organisations, such as the Youth Sport Trust. There 'mission' is to increase the participation in PE and sport in school among the young, at all levels, and at any activity, trying to ensure that the youngsters get the best possible coaching so that they can be healthy and be the best they can be in general.

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  17. coaching points for line out lifting

    They will need to focus on getting the player up in time with the thrower, to beat their opposition jumper to the ball. In the middle of the line, the taller lifters will be more useful, because the type of ball that comes in will typically be thrown higher, to clear the front of the line. 2. The mechanics Lifting and jumping: Once the players are chosen, some might need to be educated or re-educated in the art of lifting and jumping.

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  18. Athlete diet plan

    + 651 (17.5 x 87.09) + 651 = 2175.075 2175.075 x 1.55 = 3371.37 kcal Difference between actual intake and recommended intake; 3371.37 - 2463 = 908.37 kcal under recommended intake Macronutrient intake; Carbohydrates; Recommend Nutritional Intake (RNI); 316.28g Actual intake; Breakfast; 84.9+5g= 89.9 Lunch; 20.9+20.9+13.7.4g+19g+14g+23.2g= 111.7 Tea; 2.6g+1.1g+4.9g+25g+4g+2.1g= 39.7 Drinks; 10gx3= 30g Total intake; 271.3g Difference between RNI and actual intake; 320 - 271.3= 48.7 under RNI Fibre; RNI; 20 - 35g Actual intake; Breakfast; 3g Lunch; 4.3g+4.3g+0.5g+1g+2g+3.1g= 15.2g Tea; 1.2g+4.6g+2.5g+1.8g+0.1g+1.6g= 11.8g Drinks; none Total intake; 30g RNI adhered to Fat; RNI; no more than 10% of energy intake Day 1 RNI; 10% of 2463 kcal = 246.3 kcal = 27.37g (9kcal = 1g of fat)

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  19. local and national provision for boxing

    structure of the ABA of England. The Divisions (numbers of Clubs affiliated) Counties can be seen in the Appendix. The sport has a competitive base of 8,496 registered boxers (see table below), behind which are a further 20,000 individuals who deploy its training methods as part of health-related fitness programmes. All of these participants are members of boxing clubs. Boxing Clubs operate in every part of England and in many large conurbations (e.g. Liverpool), and are recognised for their significant contribution to the welfare of youngsters who might well involve themselves in criminal activity. Registered Boxers Clubs Coaches Officials Seniors Juniors Total Eastern 269 298 567 40 111 51 Home 102 209 311 35 83 17 London 619 605

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  20. Local and National Provision in Hockey

    The aims of Spencer are to provide a safe and fun environment for children of all abilities to play hockey in as well as to develop the player's ability and to foster attitudes of fair play and co-operation. "Spencer" offers structured progression from schools into adult hockey and beyond. Bromley and Beckenham Hockey Club (B&B HC) is home to a hockey course called "BUZZ" holiday course. Holiday Courses are delivered for children aged 4 to 12 years old at selected Bromley "Mytime" facilities.

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  21. Practical Team Assignment 1

    Diary - Week 2 Activity Volleyball Objectives of session To understand the main areas of dig. Skills and Techniques relevant to the sport (P1) Dig-the technique to provide dig is to have a flat back, one foot forward, knees bend, arms straight, hit the ball with the lower arm not with hands, when releasing the shot bring your arms upwards, push shoulder inside and keep your head up. What was your involvement in the sport and how did you use these skills and techniques? My involvement in the sport was just taking part in the exercise and participates with the groups we were put to.

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  22. Leadership Essay - PE

    Other leaders may emerge out of a sports group, as they are seen as a leader by the other members of the group and are accepted by them. Carron (1981) suggests that there are two different types of leaders and this was discovered from researching how the leader achieves the position of power. The two different types of leaders are prescribed leaders and emergent leaders. Emergent leaders come from within the group itself, either informally because of the skills and abilities or formally through nomination or selection.

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  23. Managing and Promoting Heath and Safety

    There are three different parts of health, safety and security that I am going to look at and an organisation needs to look at and use to make their facilities safe not only for the customers but also for the employees, they are management, training and documentation. Firstly I will look at the management of the two organisations. A manager has many responsibilities that they must carry out during the working day and over a period of time, they will have normal operating procedures that they will do during the day or shift, emergency action plans, emergency operating procedures and

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  24. Sport Society IVA

    One of the problems in measuring the true economic value of sport is that much economic activity takes place in the voluntary sector. This is a problem because volunteers usually offer their services free of charge, which makes conventional economic measurements such as the monetary value of labour meaningless. As part of its research into the size and scope of the voluntary sector the sports council solved this problem by applying an average wage rate of �8.31 per hour to the work of various sport volunteers.

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  25. Nutrition - Hydration

    Water plays a key role in temperature regulation within the body. During exercise water in the blood absorbs the heat and then carries it to the skin where it is lost in the air as sweat. Water in the form of sweat helps to cool the body when it evaporates on the surface of the skin. When we do not have enough water to regulate body temperature in the initial stages we become dizzy and light headed, suffer from nausea and in more serious cases suffer from heat stroke, hypothermia and can even die.

    • Word count: 2559

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