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'Critically discuss the key considerations when selecting appropriate coaching styles in PE and Youth Sport, with particular reference to the learning outcomes'.

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Introduction

Sports Coaching Part A 'Critically discuss the key considerations when selecting appropriate coaching styles in PE and Youth Sport, with particular reference to the learning outcomes'. When delivering a session either in Physical Education or in Youth Sport, the participants are young people normally under the age of 16. The way in which you execute and deliver a task may be the same (they are primarily in the cognitive and associative phases of learning) but the overall learning outcomes may differ slightly. In Physical education the values, which are developed, are similar, but focusing more on the introduction of sports and the mass participation. Whether as in Youth sport the focus is on 'one sport' and there is very much a win ethic involved. The main difference is that in PE it is a 'formal inculcation of knowledge' (Hill, 2001), or a taught lesson by a Teacher, compared to Youth Sport where a Coach normally delivers the session. When the participants are young their knowledge of Sport is small, and they have not yet comprehensively learned the skills and techniques involved. Therefore the way that coachers or teachers deliver tasks should be pitched at an appropriate level to the participants, for example; in Hockey you wouldn't teach the 'flick shot' to a group of novice boys, as it would be too complex for a beginner. ...read more.

Middle

invasion sports; easy to difficult progressions such as initially learning to control the ball before concentrating on passing or introducing opponents gradually). Provide prescriptive feedback for error correction and motivation purposes. Employ specific practice drills and low contextual interference conditions initially i.e. only practice one skill per session. (A Mark Williams et al, 2003) Once participants gain a certain amount of experience in sport they begin to become more competent. This is the stage at which feedback occurs and the learner gradually becomes more aware of increasingly subtle and complex cues. Motor programmes are formed in this 'Associative' phase of learning (Hall et al, 1995). In this phase teachers/coaches are to encourage performers to evaluate their own performance. Also teachers should increase progressively the complexity of the task, e.g. in Football, introduce opponents, restrict time and space. Increasing the variability in practice as well as the amount of functional or contextual interference by practising more than one skill in a session, i.e. in Rugby, Tackling and Passing. (A Mark Williams et al, 2003) In the Autonomous phase, which is the final phase of learning, the participant's movements become almost automatic, and any distractions are ignored and the performer is able to concentrate on more peripheral strategies and tactics. ...read more.

Conclusion

The advantages of Reciprocal teaching are: * Increase number of decisions by student (comparison to command). * 1:1 coaching ratio * The student's self image is improved as he/she can see that they can help others. * Pupil interaction is increased therefore developing interpersonal skills such as communication. The disadvantages of Reciprocal teaching are: * The students could provide feedback that is wrong. * The process is time consuming. * Not suitable with large groups. * Worksheets are required to guide students. Problem-solving is occasionally used in sports. This style is even more involved with cognitive processes than the reciprocal style, in as much as learners are expected to make most of the decisions concerning their own learning. The teacher sets open-ended questions, so that all answers to the problem are considered correct, e.g., "invent a way of moving over this gymnastic mat that shows both a tucked position and an extended position". The advantages of the Problem-solving teaching style are: * Students develop creativity and organisational skills. * Develops diversity of thought and performance. * Enables the pupil to progress at his or her own rate. * Encourages group interaction. The disadvantages of problem-solving as a teaching style are: * Students may not learn correct skills. * Time consuming * Discipline could be difficult as all pupils are doing different activities * Needs a small group. (http://www.compulink.co.uk/~dkeegan/PE/psychology/organisation%20of%20practices/organisations. ...read more.

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