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Define the following terms: holophytic, holozoic, antagonistic muscles, anaerobic respiration, independent segregation (as in meiosis), natural selection, industrial melanism, osmosis, active transport.

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3. Define the following terms: holophytic, holozoic, antagonistic muscles, anaerobic respiration, independent segregation (as in meiosis), natural selection, industrial melanism, osmosis, active transport. Holozoic Holozoic is a type of nutrition which concerns humans and other mammals. Food is taken into the digestion system and broken down, and the useful products absorbed. There is a great variety of feeding mechanisms among holozoic animals. Methods of feeding have been classified on the relative size of food particles ingested. See the table below for classification: Feeding by intake of small particles Feeding by intake of fluid food or soft tissue Feeding by intake of large particles Microphagous feeders Fluid feeders Macrophagous feeders So it basically means, feeding like an animal, taking organic matter in and digesting it into a form suitable for absorption, e.g. human nutrition. Holophytic Also known as autotrophic ('self nourishing'), most plants are autotrophs hence they make their own organic nutrients (food) from an external supply of relatively simple raw materials (in organic nutrients), using energy from sunlight in photosynthesis. ...read more.


Anaerobic respiration Reactions of respiration inside cells are known as tissue respiration and they are dependent up gaseous exchange between the organism and the environment. Most respiration requires oxygen and is known as aerobic respiration, the end products are carbon dioxide and water (e.g. respiration in plants, glucose + oxygen ==> carbon dioxide + water). Respiration can also take place in the absence of air (oxygen), this is called Anaerobic respiration. This takes place in cells which are deprived of air, in order to maintain the supply of energy. In lactic acid formation, the sole waste product is lactic acid. Vertebrate skeletal (e.g. mammals) muscle tissue may respire anaerobically, forming lactic acid: Glucose --> lactic acid + Energy C6 H12 O6 --> CH3 CH OH CO OH + Energy Organisms that only respire in the absence of oxygen are also known as obligate anaerobes. Natural selection Is the process by which those organisms which appear physically, physiologically better adapted to the environment and have characteristics that give them a competitive advantage, survive and reproduce; those organisms not so well adapted either fail to reproduce or die. ...read more.


This rise in the proportion of darkened forms is known as industrial melanism. Osmosis Osmosis in living organisms is the diffusion of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane: * From where water molecules are at a higher concentration to where they are at a lower concentration * From a lower concentrated solution to a higher concentrated solution * From a hypotonic solution to a hypertonic solution * From a hyperosmotic solution to a hypo-osmotic solution * From an area of high water potential to lower water potential The diagram below shows a model of osmosis: Active transport In active transport molecules move from where they are in lower concentration where they are in higher concentration. A protein carrier molecule is used (Biological pumps). This is against the concentration gradient and always needs energy. A plant may contain a higher concentration of Mg2+ ions than the soil. It obtains a supply by active transport through the cell surface membranes of the root hairs. Only Mg2+ ions can bind with the specific protein carrier molecules responsible for their entry into the plant. This is also known as active ion uptake, but it is a form of active transport. Suhail Rashid L6G ...read more.

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