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Describe and explain energy intake and expenditure in sports performance P3, M1

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Introduction

Describe and explain energy intake and expenditure in sports performance P3, M1 Energy intake and expenditure in swimming Swimmers get there energy from food they eat. Food can be measured in calories, joules, kilocalories and kilojoules. Calories measure energy, especially heat energy. One calorie is the energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius and a kilocalorie is equal to 1,000 calories. A joule is most commonly used to measure energy, one joule moves a mass of 1g at 1 metre per second and a kilojoule is equal to 1,000 joules. Swimmers get most of the energy for their workout and performance from carbohydrates. There are two types of carbohydrates, simple and complex. A complex carbohydrate consists of large molecules of simple carbohydrates, so they must be broken down into simple carbohydrates. Swimmers will tend to consume 55-70% of carbs in their diet. Fat is the secondary energy source but it takes 20-30 minutes before the swimmer uses the energy. Fats are the slowest source of energy but the most energy efficient. Each gram of fat supplies the body with about 9 calories; this is more than proteins and carbohydrates swimmers tend have 25-30% of fat in their diet. Swimmers don't tend to use protein as an energy source, they tend to use it to build body cells and only during starvation the body will use protein as an energy source. A swimmer will need to consume 12-15% of protein in their diet. ...read more.

Middle

The three body composition is ectomorph, endomorph and mesomorph. The reason why footballers fit in-between mesomorph and ectomorph is because football is a contact sport so you need strength in your upper body but you will also need to maintain speed and agility, so a less amount of body fat is needed. If a footballer is concerned about their weight, generally for performance and health reasons. It is possible to alter your body composition by exercise and a correct diet. There are three methods of assessing your body fat and lean body mass skinfold callipers, bioelectrical impedance and hydrodensitometry. Skinfold calliper uses callipers to measure skinfold thickness at several areas of your body. The measurements are used to calculate percentage of body fat. Bioelectrical impedance is another good way to measure fat percentages they work by measuring the resistance of body tissue to the flow of a small electrical signal. The longer the electrical signal takes the more fat percentage you carry. The last method and the most accurate is the hydrodensitometry this is where the athlete gets submerged under water, this measure the body's density. A footballer will tend to have a healthy body weight. Body weight is usually measured in kilograms and it's you're lean body mass and body fats. Lean body mass includes the bones, muscle, water and organ tissue. Whereas body fat includes your essential and non essential fat stores. If a footballer wants to measure their energy expenditure they will use a direct and indirect calorimetry. ...read more.

Conclusion

A tennis player will need to make sure the burn the right calories during training or competition to the same number of calories he/she eats, so they have a neural energy balance so there will be no increase or decrease in weight. Basal metabolism is the amount of calorie intake just to live and breathe without doing any activity. The calories are burned off by bodily process such as respiration and pumping blood around the body. BMR is affected by different factors: Your age is one of these factors after 30 years of age your BMR drops about 2% per decade. This means for an athlete over 30 will need to consume fewer calories at rest compared to an athlete who is 20 years of age who will need to consume more calories. Gender will have a big effect on your BMR; males compared to females tend to have more muscle mass so they will have a higher basal metabolic rate. This is why a weightlifter will have to consume more calories than a footballer because of the muscle mass. The climate will cause an increase in basal metabolic rate because if you're exposed to cold weather the body will have to work harder to maintain your body's internal temperature. A skier compared to a footballer will need top consume more calories just to maintain internal temperature. Physical activity will not only affect your body weight by burning calories. It also helps raise your BMR by building extra lean tissue, lean tissue is more metabolically demanding than fat tissue. So a football who trains 5 times a week will need to consume more calories just for the increase in lean tissue growth. ...read more.

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