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Describe the attachment of muscles and how they produce movement and provide support

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Describe the attachment of muscles and how they produce movement and provide support. The functions of muscle are to contract and therefore produce movement, support of body parts and transport of materials within the body. Muscles move the bone and the nerve control them. Muscles do other things besides moving bones. There are three types of muscle are skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Other specialised, contractile cells include the myoepithelial cells that surround glandular tissue and the myofibroblast that participate in wound repair (contraction). * Skeletal muscle moves the skeleton and organs like the tongue and eye. It is under voluntary control. Its highly organised contractile proteins give a striated appearance. * Cardiac muscle contracts the heart. * Smooth muscle does not have a striated appearance since its contractile apparatus is organised differently from that of the other muscle types. It lines viscera, the gastrointestinal tract, the uterus, and the bladder. It is also found in the walls of blood vessels and the respiratory area. The skeletal muscle Tissue organisation: Individual skeletal muscle cells are called muscle fibres. ...read more.


Differentiation, which has been studied extensively, requires three stages. * Withdrawal from the cell cycle * Production and assembly of muscle-specific proteins * Cell fusion Skeleton muscle fibres are mulinucleate cells that arise by fusion of mononucleate myoblasts. The many nuclei are located at the periphery of the cell. Mononucleate, satellite cells, associate with the muscle fibre and reside within the muscle basal lamina. They promote limited regeneration of muscle in an adult. The structure of striated muscle cells. In the skeletal muscle structure is an example of how function follows from structure. The muscle fibre structure is highly organised and easy to understand, the language is hard. PIC 2 Muscle fibres contain many myofibrils, which are organised arrays of myofilaments. Myofilaments are molecular filaments of two types. Thick filaments that are composed principally of myosin, and thin filaments, which are composed of actin. PIC 3 Thick filaments are made of many myosin molecules. Each myosin molecule contains two myosin heavy chains and two pairs of light chains. ...read more.


E F L Note that if the system is in balance the principle of movement applies. An example from a human joint complex is the action of the triceps muscle on the elbow joint The effort lies in the muscle, the fulcrum at the elbow joint and the load at the hand exerting a force. Class 2 lever: Where the load lies between the effort and the fulcrum In this type of lever the fulcrum is at one end of the lever arm, the effort at the other end, the load is between the fulcrum and the effort. Note: because of the rotational nature of a lever system load and effort must move in opposite direction - clockwise or anti-clockwise. An example of this type of lever in the human body is the ankle joint. Class 3 lever: The fulcrum and load are at opposite ends of the lever arm, with the effort somewhere in the middle. In this case the effort is always larger than the load, since the effort is nearer the fulcrum. This is the most common class of lever to be found in the human joint complexes. For example the biceps curl. ...read more.

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