• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe the attachment of muscles and how they produce movement and provide support

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Describe the attachment of muscles and how they produce movement and provide support. The functions of muscle are to contract and therefore produce movement, support of body parts and transport of materials within the body. Muscles move the bone and the nerve control them. Muscles do other things besides moving bones. There are three types of muscle are skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Other specialised, contractile cells include the myoepithelial cells that surround glandular tissue and the myofibroblast that participate in wound repair (contraction). * Skeletal muscle moves the skeleton and organs like the tongue and eye. It is under voluntary control. Its highly organised contractile proteins give a striated appearance. * Cardiac muscle contracts the heart. * Smooth muscle does not have a striated appearance since its contractile apparatus is organised differently from that of the other muscle types. It lines viscera, the gastrointestinal tract, the uterus, and the bladder. It is also found in the walls of blood vessels and the respiratory area. The skeletal muscle Tissue organisation: Individual skeletal muscle cells are called muscle fibres. ...read more.

Middle

Differentiation, which has been studied extensively, requires three stages. * Withdrawal from the cell cycle * Production and assembly of muscle-specific proteins * Cell fusion Skeleton muscle fibres are mulinucleate cells that arise by fusion of mononucleate myoblasts. The many nuclei are located at the periphery of the cell. Mononucleate, satellite cells, associate with the muscle fibre and reside within the muscle basal lamina. They promote limited regeneration of muscle in an adult. The structure of striated muscle cells. In the skeletal muscle structure is an example of how function follows from structure. The muscle fibre structure is highly organised and easy to understand, the language is hard. PIC 2 Muscle fibres contain many myofibrils, which are organised arrays of myofilaments. Myofilaments are molecular filaments of two types. Thick filaments that are composed principally of myosin, and thin filaments, which are composed of actin. PIC 3 Thick filaments are made of many myosin molecules. Each myosin molecule contains two myosin heavy chains and two pairs of light chains. ...read more.

Conclusion

E F L Note that if the system is in balance the principle of movement applies. An example from a human joint complex is the action of the triceps muscle on the elbow joint The effort lies in the muscle, the fulcrum at the elbow joint and the load at the hand exerting a force. Class 2 lever: Where the load lies between the effort and the fulcrum In this type of lever the fulcrum is at one end of the lever arm, the effort at the other end, the load is between the fulcrum and the effort. Note: because of the rotational nature of a lever system load and effort must move in opposite direction - clockwise or anti-clockwise. An example of this type of lever in the human body is the ankle joint. Class 3 lever: The fulcrum and load are at opposite ends of the lever arm, with the effort somewhere in the middle. In this case the effort is always larger than the load, since the effort is nearer the fulcrum. This is the most common class of lever to be found in the human joint complexes. For example the biceps curl. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Physiology Within Sport

    readily, and in reverse when the muscles cool down this causes the curve to shift to the left which allows the lungs to increase their uptake in oxygen. 23. DESCRIBE THE NEUROMUSCULAR RESPONSES TO STEADY- STATE EXERCISE When exercising if the muscles carry out the same exercise at the same

  2. Free essay

    Body In Action

    They work with the agonist to control and direct movement by modifying or altering the direction of pull on the agonist to the most advantageous position. * Fixator Theses muscles stop any unwanted movement throughout the whole body by fixing or stabilizing the joint or joints involved.

  1. A level Project, Personal Exercise Program on Netball.

    2 15 2 minutes Chest press 4 2 20 2 minutes Seated hamstring curl 4 2 40 2 minutes Dips-pull ups 4 only managed to do 3 on last set. 2 Not assisted 2 minutes Triceps curl 4 2 15 2 minutes Bicep curl 4 2 15 2 minutes Lateral pull down 4 2 30 2 minutes Session 2.

  2. The Structure of Skeletal Muscle.

    are branched. * The branches interlock with those of adjacent fibres by adherens junctions. These strong junctions enable the heart to contract forcefully without ripping the fibres apart. * A heartbeat is generated within the heart itself. Motor nerves (of the autonomic nervous system)

  1. Movement within the Body and the Cardiovascular System

    Myoglobin Its structure is simple. A single chain of globular protein each protein made of 153 amino acids. Each chain contains a heme group in the center. Myoglobin is the main transportation of oxygen for muscle tissues. It is similarly structured to Haemoglobin.

  2. The human bodys immune system

    So the B lymphocytes are like the SAS intelligence system seeking out their targets and sending defenses to lock on to them. The T helper subset is a pertinent coordinator of immune regulation. The main function of the T helper cell is to augment or boost immune responses by the

  1. Describe the attachment of muscles and how they produce movement and provide support.

    Connective tissue transmits the mechanical force of muscle. Tendons connect muscle to bone. The myotendinous junction occurs at the end of the muscle cell where the terminal actin filaments connect to the plasma membrane. Muscle fibres develop from the fusion of many muscle precursor cells called myoblasts. Differentiation, which has been studied extensively, requires three stages.

  2. Anatomy For BTEC Sport - bones and muscles.

    The long bones are also helpful because they act as a system of levers which the muscles can pull to allow and produce movement. There are 3 types of joints that connect bones; these are fixed joints, mobile joints and ball and socket joints.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work