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Describe the attachment of muscles and how they produce movement and provide support.

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Introduction

Assignment 3 - Anatomy and Physiology - The Muscular system Task 1 Describe the attachment of muscles and how they produce movement and provide support. The functions of muscle are to contract and therefore produce movement, support of body parts and transport of materials within the body. Muscles move the bone and the nerve control them. Muscles do other things besides moving bones. There are three types of muscle are skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Other specialised, contractile cells include the myoepithelial cells that surround glandular tissue and the myofibroblast that participate in wound repair (contraction). * Skeletal muscle moves the skeleton and organs like the tongue and eye. It is under voluntary control. Its highly organised contractile proteins give a striated appearance. * Cardiac muscle contracts the heart. * Smooth muscle does not have a striated appearance since its contractile apparatus is organised differently from that of the other muscle types. It lines viscera, the gastrointestinal tract, the uterus, and the bladder. It is also found in the walls of blood vessels and the respiratory area. The skeletal muscle Tissue organisation: Individual skeletal muscle cells are called muscle fibres. Muscle fibres are large and the nuclei reside along the cell boundary. A basal lamina and connective tissue surround each muscle cell. They are bound to each other and to surrounding tissue by connective tissue to form a gross 'muscle'. Cell junctions do not join skeletal muscle fibres. ...read more.

Middle

Somatic nervous Autonomic nervous system System (under (under involuntary control) Voluntary control) ( Sensory neurones/ * Sensory neurones/ visceral receptors Afferent nerves (Motor neurones/ * Motor neurones/ sympathetic and Efferent nerves parasympathetic nerves ( Davis. B, Bull. R, Roscoe. J, Roscoe. D; Physical Education and the study of sport; 1997 third edition; Mosby; London' p 40 A motor neurone is started of as a cell body within the grey matter and its axon passes out of the ventral root of the spinal cord to innervate muscle cells. The muscle cell consists of three major parts that include a cell body containing the nucleus, mitochondria and other organelles, cellular extensions called dendrites and an axon. Dendrites look like fine branches with twigs extending out from a neurone. Following sensory stimulation a relay neurone transmits neural impulses to the dendrites of the motor neurone; they are specialised to receive electrical impulses and conduct these towards the cell body. Axons are segmented tube-like extensions of a neurone. They arise from the thickened area of the cell body and emerge out of the ventral root of the spinal cord. The function of the axon is to transmit neural impulses away from the cell body towards muscle tissue or a gland. The surrounding myelin sheath acts as an insulator this will speed up the transmission of the impulse. ...read more.

Conclusion

In isometric contractions the muscle contracts but does not shorten, and therefore there is know movement being produced. Advantages * Isometric exercises develop static strength - the strength you need to push or pull a heavy object or hold it up. * They are quick to do and don't hurt. * They don't need expensive equipment. * You can do them anywhere. Disadvantages * The muscle gains strength only at the angle you use in the exercise. * During an exercise the blood flow to the muscle stops, blood pressure rises, and less blood flows back to the heart. It could be dangerous if you have heart problems. Isometric training is not sufficient on its own. You need to combine it with isotonic training. Isokinetic contractions are when the muscle contracts and shortens at constant speed. An isotonic contraction is different to an isokinetic contraction because it is usually slowest at the start. For isokinetic training you need special equipment that detects when a muscle is speeding up, and increases the load to slow it down again. Advantages * The muscle gains strength evenly all through the range of movement. * It is the fastest way to increase muscle strength. Disadvantage * The equipment is very expensive so most gyms cannot afford it. Concentric contraction occurs when a muscle shortens in length and develops tension. Eccentric contraction involves the development of tension whilst the muscle is being lengthened. ...read more.

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