• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe the Fitt's and Posner's phases of learning and explain how you would structure practices to enhance a performance.

Extracts from this document...


Amy Bowring Describe the Fitt's and Posner's phases of learning and explain how you would structure practices to enhance a performance. In 1967 Paul Fitts (Fitts) and Michael Posner (Posner) developed the Classic Stages of learning model. They detailed the kinds of changes and phases that learners go through when acquiring skill. The three stages of learning of the Fitts and Posner model are best understood as reflecting a continuum of practice time. The cognitive stage represents the first portion of the continuum. This is followed by the associative stage and then the autonomous stage. The transition from one stage to the next is not abrupt; on the contrary, it is gradual and the transition is difficult to detect as the learner may at any point in time be at a particular stage or in transition between stages. However, the beginner and the skilled performer have distinct characteristics that need to be understood. The concept of deliberate practice helps to explain how this transformation comes about. Cognitive stage This is the first stage of the learning process where the beginner tries to get to grip with the nature of the activity and to figure out what to do. Verbal explanations and demonstrations are important. Improvements are rapid but movements are jerky and uncoordinated. ...read more.


The players know where each other are, they have no time pressure, lots of space and no opposition. As the performer becomes a little more comfortable, very limited opposition could be introduced. It is vital that the beginner receives as much attention as they require and their techniques regarded carefully by the coach or trainer so any bad habits they may surface can be rectified immediately before the player becomes accustom to it. As I mentioned earlier, the kind of errors made are usually gross e.g. a hockey player miss the ball when attempting to pass. At this stage they may not understand how to correct what they are doing wrong. This is where feedback from coaches is vital and should involve visual demonstration, verbal instructions and/or manual physical guidance. Associative stage The performer now understands the activity. Specific motor programmes and subroutines are developed and consistency and coordination improve. The aim of the learner is to begin to associate the 'feel' of the movements with the end result. Gross error detection and correction is practised and detailed feedback is utilised. Example - the novice hockey player will now practise the pass, perhaps by practising the sub-routines. ...read more.


The learner is now able to attend to other cues such as tactics and strategies. This stage is only reached by the very skilful. The lack of conscious control to movement production enables the performers to free their attention mechanisms to deal more affectively with the conditions surrounding them e.g. other players, obstacles, tactics and strategies. Example - the hockey pass has been learnt and the player can now pass with little conscious effort. Performers are now capable of identifying their own errors and are able to correct them themselves. Performers should be encouraged to contribute to their own improvement through self analysis. Now little conscious attention should be required for the actual technique therefore the player can begin to think about other things such as tactics, strategy and disguise because the player does not have to think about each component of the technique. This is something that most players, when they reach this level will attain themselves however it can be encouraged by pressure practices and game like situations which will enhance the skill. Accuracy, consistency and fluidity can be improved on in similar situation which result in the player being able to perform the skill comfortably and to its maximum effect enhancing the overall performance of the player. Coaches feedback is still important during the autonomous stage. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill essays

  1. Self analysis of football performance - Comparison to elite model

    I can improve my core stability by improving the quality of my stabilizer muscles; this can be done in the gym, with weights or in circuit training where I set up circuits that improve core stability. I can improve my technique by practising regularly and taking tips from my coach.

  2. Identify the important components/skills/techniques needed for a successful performance in the shot put.

    They have been encouraging the athlete to beat the rest of the field, and willing him on as he does so. This may cause the athlete to perform at his best, as he knows he wouldn't want to disappoint them in anyway.

  1. Pe: Performance Profile Analysis

    I applied overload to it, using the training principle of overload will be essential in helping me enhance my muscular strength. This is because the more weights I lift will allow my muscles to break then heal to become stronger, the progressive overload increases the intensity rate of which I work at.

  2. Analysing Performance: Badminton Observation of a player in a game and in practice

    Mental Factors Motivation- Motivation internal and external motivation is highly important for sport people as this is what normally helps people do better and go on to win. If someone is motivated internally they are setting themselves a goal for a set reason and they feel that they have to

  1. Techniques, Rules and Tactics of Football

    In any tackling technique timing is crucial. Try to tackle when the opponent is off balance, lets the football follow on too far in front of them or also called 'showing too much of the ball' to you. Another good time to tackle is when the opponent looks down at the ball.

  2. Self analysis of weaknesses in table tennis - Comparison to elite model 2

    my wrist, to allow the bat to be closed in the manner in which I wish it to be. Although sometimes I fail to close my bat as much as I should depending on the spin of the opponent, therefore the resulting shot ends up off the end of the

  1. I have chosen badminton for my personal exercise programme. I will enhance my performance ...

    The assistant records the total time taken from his command to the athlete completing the course. Analysis The following table is for adult athletes. Gender Excellent Above Average Average Below Average Poor Male <15.2 secs 15.2 - 16.1 secs 16.2 - 18.1 secs 18.2 - 18.3 secs >18.3 secs Female

  2. Sports Psychology Reseach Project - using dissociative and associative strategies for helping concentration.

    These results, though agreeing with the hypothesis, can not be considered valid because the physical aspect of the results was derived from a self-evaluation. This is not quantifiable data, rather an individuals perception of a performance and could not be interpreted as a direct representation of results.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work