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Devising a PEP.

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Introduction

Devising a PEP There are a number of principles and types of training that should be considered when devising a training regime. The principles of training are the laws that a training schedule has to abide by to be successful. If these laws aren't followed the training schedule is very likely to become totally useless to an athlete. SPORT explains the main five principles of training, which are: Specificity Progression Overload Reversibility Tedium These words all apply to training in different ways, and are very important when devising a training regime for an athlete: * Specificity means that any training that takes place should be specific to the sport that the athlete is training for. For example it wouldn't be appropriate for a tennis player to train by playing football, as it is a different sport, uses a different energy system, and different parts of the body. Specificity is aimed at all aspects of the sport from the muscles used to the energy system the sport involves. This means that to target the muscle groups present you should train by doing exercise that is similar to what you would do in your sport. For example weight training could improve power for a rugby player. To target specific energy systems you have to use the same energy system in your training as you would when undertaking the sport. For example, a footballer could train using fartlek training to target the anaerobic lactic acid system, as you run at varying speeds in football like in fartlek training * Progression means that for improvements to keep occurring the intensity of training needs to be gradually increased. This is because if you keep training at one thing your going to adapt to that exercise and if you don't make it harder you will stay at this level and wont improve. For example, when weight training if you constantly train at one weight you will soon are able to lift it easily and won't progress past that point. ...read more.

Middle

Energy is stored in the muscle cell, then when there is an energy need in the cell the ATP attaches to myosin. This makes the cell contract, then the myosin discharges and ADP returns to be recharged. Advantages - Responds very fast to energy demands. Produces no toxic waste products. Stores can be replenished very quickly during recovery. All reactants are found in the cell. Disadvantages - can only be used for activities lasting 8 seconds or less. 2. Anaerobic Lactic Acid System - This is a short term energy system which is used in situations your muscles need to work at a high level for 1 to 3 minutes. The muscle cell uses the ATP but it runs out quickly and the cell runs out of oxygen, so the cell compensates. This makes lactic acid, which is counteracted by oxygen, which is why you need to rest for a short period of time to make up the oxygen debt while doing the exercise, and for a long period of time after. Advantages - Responds moderately fast to energy demands. Can be used for activities lasting 1 to 3 minutes. All reactants found in the cell. Disadvantages - Produces very toxic waste product (lactic acid). Recovers very slowly (15 minutes to 1.5 hours). 3. Aerobic Energy System - This is used when the body is exercising at a steady state for a long period of time. To keep this up a steady flow of oxygen is needed to keep the energy levels up. Advantages - Can supply energy indefinitely. Produces only mildly toxic waste products. Needs no recovery. Disadvantages - Very slow in responding to energy demands. Requires nutrients from outside the cell (oxygen, glucose and/or fats). Targeting Energy Systems: Each of the energy systems need to be targeted in different ways if weight training is to be successful: ATP/PC System -When training the immediate energy system you have to make sure that: * The training is more intense but the frequency is less (about 3 reps per set). ...read more.

Conclusion

Extend knees and hips until legs are straight, thus lifting the weight. Descend until thighs are just past parallel to floor. Exhale when extending, inhale when descending. Return and repeat. Muscles used - Once again the target is the quadriceps. The synergist are the gluteus maximus and the adductors, while the stabilizers are the hamstrings, gastrocneumus and abdominals. Why these muscles - This will improve all the major leg muscles used in football improving all round fitness and specific fitness in the sport. I will target the anaerobic lactic acid system. Maximum Weight - 45 Kg Schedule - Because I am working on my anaerobic acid system I will work at a lower intensity but a higher frequency: * First 3 weeks - 8 reps, 3 sets. 80% of max = 36 Kg * Second 3 weeks - 8 reps, 3 sets. 85% of max = 39 Kg * First 3 weeks - 8 reps, 3 sets. 90% of max = 41 Kg Calf Raise: Technique - Place shoulders under pads. Position toes and balls of feet on calf block with arches and heels extending off. Grasp sides of padded lever. Extending hips and knees, keep knees straight throughout exercise. Raise heels by extending ankles as high as possible. Lower heels by bending ankles until calves are stretched. Inhale when lowering, exhale when raising. Repeat. Muscles Used - The target muscle here is the gastrocnemius, with the trapezius being the stabilizers. Why these muscles - The calfs will be used a lot when running and jumping in football and so improving these will help me improve performance. I will concentrate on the anaerobic lactic acid system in these muscles. Maximum Weight - 80 Kg Schedule - Because I am working on my anaerobic acid system I will work at a lower intensity but a higher frequency: * First 3 weeks - 8 reps, 3 sets. 80% of max = 64 Kg * Second 3 weeks - 8 reps, 3 sets. 85% of max = 68 Kg * First 3 weeks - 8 reps, 3 sets. 90% of max = 72 Kg ...read more.

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