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Discuss how information processing varies between individual, racket and team activities.

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Introduction

Discuss how information processing varies between individual, racket and team activities. The information processing system is the system used for skill selection. In simple terms, this is selecting the right skill for the situation in hand with as little delay as possible to give a most effective outcome, which entails the use of the senses to evaluate a situation and make a decision. This is also known as the DCR process. (We Detect information, Compare it with previous experiences and then React). All sports involve the DCR process, and also the use of perceptual skills, (a learning process), which is vital in selecting the correct skill for the situation. A simple version of the information processing model can be seen below: In 1968, Welford created a more complex model of analysis of information processing, suggesting that we take in info and temporarily store all of these inputs prior to sorting them out. The inputs relevant to the decision are then sorted in the short term memory. The decision is then made with reference to long term memory to see how to perform a selected skill and action and results are stored for future reference, like a cycle. Welford's model of information processing. Information processing differs between individual, team and racket activities, in the sense that each respected activity requires different perceptual skills to be successful. There are three ways in which information is taken in through senses prior to decision. ...read more.

Middle

Tactile sense is another element of proprioception. It is the feeling of pressure and sense of touch to tell if we are controlling/touching an object. This is most useful in racket activities, an example could be a drop shot in badminton; we use our tactile sense to control the delicate touch of the shot, for the best outcome possible e.g. to win the point. It is also important in team games, e.g. having good control of a football, however tactile sense needs to be more complex to pay off in racket activities, as you cannot rely on anyone other than yourself. The perception stage of the information processing system is vital. This is where the relevant and irrelevant sensory inputs are sorted out; those that are required for decision making are transferred to the short term memory, and those not needed are discarded. This process is known as selective attention. This process is required for inputs to be successful as the brain can only hold 7-10 pieces of information at one time because we have a 'channel capacity.' For this reason we discard irrelevant inputs e.g. discarding a whistle on another court, or aeroplane overhead. Individual activities such as rowing and running involve less sensory inputs in the perception stage, so the performer's information processing phase lasts for less time than the other activities. Long term memory is kept in the performer's brain for a lifetime. ...read more.

Conclusion

Thus there is a delay in the second decision, during which time the player has dribbled past the defender. The double arrow represents the delay involved. To make the best use of the PRP in sport, the second stimulus must be timed correctly, if they are too late, the first process will be near to completion and the delay will be short. If the second stimulus follows too quickly, the defender can ignore the first set and simply pick up on the second. The PRP would be used in most team games at a high level, and very few racket activities, however in individual activities this would not work as there is only one stimulus. In conclusion, information processing is similar in all three activities in that they all require basic sensory inputs such as vision and audition, and all need selective attention of inputs to become successful. There are also some noticeable differences between the three. For example, the inputs vary in importance in correlation to the type of activities, e.g. the tactile sense is essential in playing effective shots in badminton, (racket activities) whereas in individual activities, require little tactile sense, e.g. running. Team activities involve most sensory inputs, and the perception stage is the most complex due to this. Team games also involve the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) which is used in team games and very rarely, racket games. ?? ?? ?? ?? Oliver Wells Page 1 of 4 ...read more.

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