• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Discuss how information processing varies between individual, racket and team activities.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Discuss how information processing varies between individual, racket and team activities. The information processing system is the system used for skill selection. In simple terms, this is selecting the right skill for the situation in hand with as little delay as possible to give a most effective outcome, which entails the use of the senses to evaluate a situation and make a decision. This is also known as the DCR process. (We Detect information, Compare it with previous experiences and then React). All sports involve the DCR process, and also the use of perceptual skills, (a learning process), which is vital in selecting the correct skill for the situation. A simple version of the information processing model can be seen below: In 1968, Welford created a more complex model of analysis of information processing, suggesting that we take in info and temporarily store all of these inputs prior to sorting them out. The inputs relevant to the decision are then sorted in the short term memory. The decision is then made with reference to long term memory to see how to perform a selected skill and action and results are stored for future reference, like a cycle. Welford's model of information processing. Information processing differs between individual, team and racket activities, in the sense that each respected activity requires different perceptual skills to be successful. There are three ways in which information is taken in through senses prior to decision. ...read more.

Middle

Tactile sense is another element of proprioception. It is the feeling of pressure and sense of touch to tell if we are controlling/touching an object. This is most useful in racket activities, an example could be a drop shot in badminton; we use our tactile sense to control the delicate touch of the shot, for the best outcome possible e.g. to win the point. It is also important in team games, e.g. having good control of a football, however tactile sense needs to be more complex to pay off in racket activities, as you cannot rely on anyone other than yourself. The perception stage of the information processing system is vital. This is where the relevant and irrelevant sensory inputs are sorted out; those that are required for decision making are transferred to the short term memory, and those not needed are discarded. This process is known as selective attention. This process is required for inputs to be successful as the brain can only hold 7-10 pieces of information at one time because we have a 'channel capacity.' For this reason we discard irrelevant inputs e.g. discarding a whistle on another court, or aeroplane overhead. Individual activities such as rowing and running involve less sensory inputs in the perception stage, so the performer's information processing phase lasts for less time than the other activities. Long term memory is kept in the performer's brain for a lifetime. ...read more.

Conclusion

Thus there is a delay in the second decision, during which time the player has dribbled past the defender. The double arrow represents the delay involved. To make the best use of the PRP in sport, the second stimulus must be timed correctly, if they are too late, the first process will be near to completion and the delay will be short. If the second stimulus follows too quickly, the defender can ignore the first set and simply pick up on the second. The PRP would be used in most team games at a high level, and very few racket activities, however in individual activities this would not work as there is only one stimulus. In conclusion, information processing is similar in all three activities in that they all require basic sensory inputs such as vision and audition, and all need selective attention of inputs to become successful. There are also some noticeable differences between the three. For example, the inputs vary in importance in correlation to the type of activities, e.g. the tactile sense is essential in playing effective shots in badminton, (racket activities) whereas in individual activities, require little tactile sense, e.g. running. Team activities involve most sensory inputs, and the perception stage is the most complex due to this. Team games also involve the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) which is used in team games and very rarely, racket games. ?? ?? ?? ?? Oliver Wells Page 1 of 4 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill essays

  1. Free essay

    Practical Sports Study (Individual) log Book for Badminton

    Here are some pointers for playing a forehand overhead clear. * Adopt the forehand grip. * Turn your body and stand sideways to the net with your non-racket shoulder facing the net. * Shift your weight on to your rear foot.

  2. Technique Sheet Activity - Swimming Front Crawl

    After crossing the barrier the trailing knee continues to rise and came round in front of the body. The trail leg was left quite wide by this athlete which should have been more tightly tucked in until touchdown. The trail leg is often left opened too prematurely, causing a loss of balance and speed.

  1. Gaelic football

    The club structure is one, which a committee organises the day to day running of the club providing the opportunity to be involved at different levels in the GAA. They also provide a selected team or teams to compete in various levels of competitions.

  2. analysis of 2 sports : Badminton and Gaelic Football

    resulting in a small force being applied or the shuttle being shot in the wrong direction. Follow Through Strengths o On the follow through the player was always consistent in laying out a direction for the shuttle to go, which results in a point or a rally.

  1. Critically Evaluate The Relationship Between Team Cohesion and Performance in Competitive Sport.

    Whereas team sports are referred to as interactive sports. Studies have been conducted on such groups, to see if differences exist to try and summarise a cohesion performance effect. (Kozub and Button, 2000; Grieve et al., 2000; Williams and Widmeyer, 1991). Kozub and Button (2000) studied both rugby and swimming teams and summarised that cohesion is more important for

  2. Techniques, Rules and Tactics of Football

    The key to this skill is to start with the forehead underneath the ball, so that the head can move upwards to attack the ball. Your eyes should always remain below the ball, so that when your forehead makes contact with the ball, your head is moving upwards.

  1. Information processing

    In his long term memory the player may bring to mind previous situation against the player of team or previous situations when he attempted this kind of volley against the other opposition. In the decision process the player decides whether he should clear the ball, direct it to a team mate or shoot at goal.

  2. Practical team sports analysis - Football and Basketball

    A longer kick to the midfield is more common and it is vital that the midfield unit are in a position to receive it. Corners A corner is a real goal scoring opportunity and it is essential to know who is best at taking a good corner from both the left and right side of the pitch.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work