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'Discuss the role of feedback in the learning of skills'.

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'Discuss the role of feedback in the learning of skills' According to 'The A-Z of physical education' by James et al 2000, feedback is the information received by the individual or group either during or after completion of the performance. There are many different types of feedback. These are: Intrinsic (inherent) feedback - This comes from within the performer and is in response to the feel of how the skill was performed through the kinaesthetic sense. Extrinsic (augmented) feedback - This type of feedback comes from outside the performer and can be from the coach, teacher, teammates or spectators. Continuous feedback - This is received during the activity and can come from the performers themselves or the coach. Terminal feedback - This is received after the activity and can be given immediately by the coach or some time later, for example when analysing a video of the performance. Knowledge of performance - This type of feedback can be both intrinsic and extrinsic and is information about the technique and performance. For example, a coach will talk to the team after a match about how they played. ...read more.


Positive feedback is used to reinforce the performance if it was successful, encouraging repetition of the action. This type of feedback is essential if the performer is to learn, as they need to know what to repeat and therefore it is essential for beginners. It also helps to motivate the performers. For example, in dance, if the dancer performed a specific movement or step well, the teacher would make a positive comment, informing the dancer of the successful performance of that movement. This will help to motivate the dancer and encourage them to improve their performance further as they will realise that they are making progress with their dance and that further improvement is possible. Negative feedback is also important in the learning of skills. It is received if the performance was incorrect to discourage the performer from repeating the action. All negative feedback needs to include what was wrong with the performance and how to improve and correct the errors in the performance. Just telling the performer that the action is incorrect does not enable them to improve, as they need to be told how to improve it. ...read more.


Positive reinforcement is given to strengthen the performers technique and involves praise and encouragement. This helps to keep the performer motivated, enhancing their learning of skills. Feedback needs to be meaningful and relevant to the phase of learning. Beginners may need general feedback whereas more advanced performers may need more specific feedback. However, beginners sometimes need more specific feedback to enable them to develop their skill. For example, in badminton if you told an experienced player that their position was wrong, they would probably be able to correct the error immediately. However, if you said this to a beginner, they would probably need more specific feedback such as how to position their feet or the racket to enable them to correct their errors. In conclusion, although skills can be learnt without the use of feedback, it is generally accepted that feedback makes the learning process more efficient. This is because feedback gives the performers information on their performance, including positive comments as well as picking up on their errors and informing the performer on how they can improve, enabling them to develop their overall performance quicker than if they had not received any additional help. The quality of their skills can be effectively enhanced through feedback, particularly during the early phases of learning. ...read more.

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