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Discuss the role of feedback in the learning of skills.

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Introduction

Daniel Thompson Discuss the role of feedback in the learning of skills Introduction When a performer chooses to move or make an action it is controlled by the conscious brain using a collection of learned movements. For this movement to progress successfully, the performer requires feedback. Types of skill There are a number of different types of skills: * Cognitive - or intellectual skills that require thought processes * Perceptual - interpretation of presented information * Motor - movement and muscle control * Perceptual motor - involve the thought, interpretation and movement skills * How do we Learn new skill? The teaching of a new skill can be achieved by various methods: * Verbal instructions * Demonstration * Video * Diagrams * Photo sequences * The Learning Phases There are three stages to learning a new skill and these are: * Cognitive phase - Identification and development of the component parts of the skill * Associative phase - Linking the component parts into a smooth action * Autonomous phase - Developing the learned skill so that it becomes automatic To learn a skill it requires relevant movements to be assembled component-by-component, using feedback to shape and perfect them into one smooth action. Rehearsal of the skill is also important in order for the skill to be maintained at the correct status. ...read more.

Middle

It acts as a motivator and this applies especially for learners. There are three main methods of guidance in relation to learning a skill and they are...Visual guidance, Verbal Guidance and Manual Guidance. Guidance is an important factor in learning a new skill in sport as it reinforces feedback. Feedback is what the performer did, and guidance is how the performer can improve. Visual Guidance is basically someone showing the learner how the skill is performed. This creates a mental image and helps the learner to get the idea of how to perform the skill. Verbal Guidance is basically when the teacher/coach describes the action involved or how the skill is performed. Manual Guidance is when the coach/teacher actually aids the learner physically to perform the task. An example of this would be in gymnastics when the teacher helps an athlete perform a summersault. Anyway, which ever form of feedback is used it is important that the feedback is accurate, concise and understandable so that the player can rectify his errors and stay focused on the task in hand. Positive Feedback - positive feedback is when a person is given feedback on their performance with a successful outcome. This is basically when the positives are outlined and the negatives constructively criticised. The player then knows what to repeat for the next time they perform the skill with that particular action. ...read more.

Conclusion

This also strengthens the schema in the memory. Concurrent - This type of feedback is basically information provided to the athlete during the performance. This can be from either the performer or the coach and can be extrinsic - a coach shouting information at the performer, or intrinsic - the performer feeling the movements. This type of feedback is beneficial although a negative is that a teacher interrupting an athlete whilst training might make them lose concentration. Knowledge of Performance - Knowledge of performance (KP) can be gained from feedback, coach, video or self-analysis about their performance or technique. This basically enables the athlete to establish a kinaesthetic reference for the appropriate movement. Knowledge of Results - Knowledge of results (KR) is information that is to do with the result of an athlete's performance. The results are given to the performer who then analyses them and compares them to previous performances. Differences between knowledge of performance and knowledge of results The difference between knowledge of performance and knowledge of results is basically that knowledge of results is different because it is only extrinsic information concerning the outcome of the skill or activity. Overall most athletes prefer knowledge of result rather then knowledge of performance. Summary Overall feedback is information, which tells the performer the result or outcome of their movement. It can come form different sources and can act in different ways and have many different effects depending on the person. With the correct guidance, feedback can be very useful to a performer. ...read more.

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