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Discuss the role of feedback in the learning of skills

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Introduction

Discuss the role of feedback in the learning of skills Feedback is "information received in response to something done." (Collins English dictionary) (1992) There are different types of feedback: Intrinsic feedback- this type of feedback comes from with in the performer themselves about the skill they have just performed "kinaesthetic sense" (Edexcel book) (Frank Galligan, 2000). E.g. A cover drive in cricket- the performer will know how well they have done by the end result and the feeling they got from striking the ball. Extrinsic feedback- this comes from an external source like coaches, fans or teammates. E.g. a tackle in football might be applauded by fellow teammates if it is good. Positive feedback- concentrates on the good side of the skill, performed. This encourages the performer and makes him aware of the good things. E.g. a dive in swimming- a coach might have praised the beautiful entry to the water. Negative feedback- these are the things that need to be improved about a technique and what was bad. E.g. drive in golf- the balance of stance might need to be improved in order to hit the ball straight. ...read more.

Middle

E.g. A volleyball spike- I have a visual of how the skill should be performed from the cognitive stage and the extrinsic positive feedback from what I was doing right I can then perform the skill. The feedback that needs to be given is extrinsic from a coach. He needs to start giving some negative feedback about what's wrong so the leaner will become eager to progress and develop the skill further. The Autonomous stage is when the performer/learner starts to have some kinaesthesis sense and therefore starts to gain some intrinsic feedback through sensory input. This starts to develop the performers KP and he starts to understand wrong from right. This is stored in the learners Motor memory. E.g. Autonomous stage in badminton I start to notice that I'm timing the shuttlecock better and the performance benefits from that. The coach should also add some extrinsic, negative and KP feedback to strive for perfection but also some positive feedback because you want to keep the performer motivated. Through out all three stages both terminal and concurrent feedback is beneficial extrinsically. However there is another theory about the learning of skill, this is the "Schema and Loop" (Edexcel Book, Frank Galligan 2000) ...read more.

Conclusion

E.g. Extrinsic Negative feed back is given to me in order to improve my butterfly stroke; I then know how to improve my stroke. Feedback has a role in enhancing skill as it can put the learner in the right direction. Both positive and negative feedback are important as they keep the leaner interested in learning the skill. The coach must find the right balance and give accurate feedback. The quality of the feedback can correct any errors in a performers technique, therefore enabling him to perform the skill better. KR and KP are important as well as they motivate the learner and keep the interest. E.g. learning tennis serve - a beginner would need KR/KP/positive feedback to motivate him and a bit of negative feedback to help him progress and make him determined to enhance skill. Conclusion: Skill can be learnt with out the aid of feedback but can speed up the process especially with beginners. Beginners will look to feedback (KR) more then anything to enhance skill, as they need to have the information about the technique. Its important to note that different people respond to feedback differently so it's important to keep the attention of the performer especially at a raw stage. It must be accurate, given in little doses and motivate the performer in order to enhance skill. ...read more.

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