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Effects of energy intake and expenditure on performance

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Task 1 Energy Intake is the amount of energy you take in during a certain period e.g. the recommended daily energy intake for men is 2500 kcal and for women is 2000 kcal. This energy is then expended during exercise or any physical activity. Energy is needed for respiration- breathing, keeping your heart beating, keeping the body warm and all other bodily functions needed for survival. It is also needed for physical activity with relation to muscle contraction. Finally energy is needed for growth and repair of body tissue. Metabolism is the rate at which chemical reactions occur within the body to keep the body health and in working order. Basal metabolic rate is the minimum level of energy intake needed to keep essential bodily functions working and to keep our organs and tissues in working order. Resting metabolic rate is all the energy you have used in a day other than that for physical activity. The higher the level of activity, then the more energy is burnt off. E.g. if an average adult male weighing 155 pounds plays badminton for 30 minutes they will burn off approximately 205 calories where as if the same person performs kickboxing for 20 minutes they will burn off 372 calories. As the level of activity increases so does the energy expenditure. The length of time you perform an activity can also affect the amount of energy you expend. ...read more.


down- so, if an athlete doesn't eat frequently enough their body will begin to slow down its metabolism and the chemical reactions within the body will slow down. This means that the body will not supply all the energy needed and the athlete will struggle to respire as easily. Eventually, the body will begin to break down fat for energy. Finally, the amount of nutrients we take in effects our metabolism. Our body needs a constant supply of nutrients in order to perform each individual chemical reaction, without these nutrients these chemical reactions can become insufficient and sluggish; athletes need a much higher intake of nutrients in order to perform effectively and to maximum potential. Task 2 "Energy is the capacity of a body or a physical system for doing work." Taken from http://www.diabetesmonitor.com/dictionary/glossary_nhlbi.htm#e Energy balance can come in three different categories: positive, negative and neutral. A positive energy balance is where your energy intake is higher than your energy expenditure; this in turn will lead to weight gain. This means that when an athlete is looking to gain weight for an event such as boxing where a boxer may look to move up a weight class in order to try new challenges. The boxer will deliberately manipulate his/ her diet in order to gain weight; they will take in more calories than what is needed. ...read more.


It also allows less air or water resistance; this is essential in sports such as swimming where the swimmer needs a fine shaped body in order to move through the water easily. A low air resistance is also needed for divers to move elegantly through the air on their way down. There are also good and bad effects of a positive energy balance; the good effects are that a positive energy balance will provide you with a lot of energy which is obviously essential in an athlete's performance. Also, it will give you a lower perceived exertion, because you have more energy available at the end of your workout you will feel like you haven't done as much as what you could have. This can leave to over exertion, possible dehydration and an increased fatigue. An increased muscle mass also occurs from a positive energy balance which is essential in sports such as weight lifting. Although this increased muscle mass is good for sports such as weight lifting it is not so good for sports such as football where only a certain limit of muscle mass is required. Finally, from this increased muscle mass you will have an increased weight and therefore gravity acts upon you more. This means that in sports such as sprinting there will be more resistance against the athlete in question. In sports such as swimming it is necessary to have a low air resistance in order to move through the air faster. ...read more.

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