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effects of exercise on cardiovascular system

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Introduction

Effects of exercise on cardiovascular system Exercise can effect the cardiovascular system in both long-term and short-term ways. The short-term effects are: * Heart rate increases * Stroke volume increases * Cardiac output increases * Blood pressure increases * Blood redistributed The heart rate increases depending on the intensity of exercise you are carrying out. The heart also prepares itself before exercise. Just before exercise is carried out the heart rate will rise this is known as the anticipatory rise. This is caused by a release of hormones such as adrenaline, which then causes the SA node to increase the heart rate. After exercise the heart rate takes a while to return to its resting level, this is the body's recovery period. During this phase, the heart rate must remain slightly elevated in order to get rid of the body's waste products such as lactic acid. The stroke volume is the volume of blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction. ...read more.

Middle

During high intensity exercise both systolic and diastolic pressure rise due to increased resistance of blood vessels. This is cause by muscles squeezing veins. Blood flow changes once exercise is taking place. During exercise the blood flow is changed from being directed at the liver and kidneys to the most needed areas. This is because the working muscles need more oxygen so more blood is needed to meet this demand. So this demand can be met and the muscles and keep working efficiently at a high impact the blood is redirected from the liver, kidneys, and digestive system to the muscles that are in demand of oxygen. The long-term effects are: * Decrease in blood pressure/// * Hypertrophy of the heart * Increase in thickness of the myocardium * Increase in stroke volume at rest * Bradycardia * Increase in cardiac output * Decrease in resting heart rate Cardiac hypertrophy is the enlargement of the heart. ...read more.

Conclusion

are so efficient they do not need to beat any faster as there bodies are efficient enough to deal with only 40bpm. Cardiac output is increased due to a larger volume of blood therefore the heart doesn't have to work as hard as it did before and the cardiac output is then decreased. Resting heart rate is effected by exercise because the muscles in the body demand more oxygen. This means the heart needs to work harder to ensure enough oxygen is delivered to the blood so the oxygen can be carried to the working muscles and the carbon dioxide and lactic acid are removed. Therefore the more you exercise the stronger the heart will become and won't have to work as hard when it is at rest lowering the resting heart rate. Therefore the resting heart rate is decreased and it is not necessary for the heart to beat as quick as it did, now the heart is larger it can beat slower but still achieve pumping the same amount of blood. ...read more.

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