• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Energy Systems in the Human Body

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐Energy Systems ATP is broken down by the enzyme ATPase to form ADP and Pi. Energy is release exothermically from this reaction. ATP can be used in the body for up to 3 seconds of muscular work at high intensity. The bond that holds the phosphate to the ATP molecule has potential energy, which when broken released energy. ATP/PC System takes place in the sarcoplasm. PC is broken down by the enzyme creatine kinase to produce a phosphate, creating and energy. The phosphate from this reaction can be used to resynthesize ATP, by reacting ADP + P + energy. This is an endothermic reaction. Overall, there is a yield of 1:1, so there has been a 0 net gain of ATP. ...read more.


Glucose is first broken down into pyruvic acid by the enzyme PFKase, releasing 2 molecules of ATP. In the absence of oxygen, the pyruvic acid if further broken down into lactic acid by the enzyme LDHase. Lactic acid is a fatiguing product, so therefore, pH levels will decrease, and enzymes will denature and no longer work as biological catalysts. This process can resynthesize ATP between 10 seconds and 3 minutes at high intensity. This is an anaerobic process, so no oxygen is required. A total yield of ATP is 1:2. Events such as the 800 meters are best suited to this system, as the event is still high-intensity, and lasts between 10 seconds and 3 minutes. The last system is the aerobic system which is split up into 3 stages. ...read more.


The final stage of the aerobic system is the electron transport chain. This takes place in the cristae of the mitochondria. The electron carriers and the hydrogen atoms from the Krebs cycle enter the cristae of the mitochondria. They combine to form NADH and FADH, and are carried down the electron transport chain, where hydrogen splits up into H+ and e- ions. The hydrogen electrons pass down the electron transport chain, which provides energy to resynthesize 34 molecules of ATP. The hydrogen ions (H+) combine with oxygen to form a water molecule. This is released due to sweating, breathing or urine. Overall, in the aerobic system a total yield of 1:38 has been produced of ATP. This process can resynthesize ATP between 3 minutes and 1 hour. This system works aerobically. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. A level Project, Personal Exercise Program on Netball.

    The performer occasionally switched between feet as the dominant foot which could have also resulted in the umpire calling up footwork offences. Compared to my performer, this shows the level of skill the performer has and therefore identifies the lack of progression and development of the sport.

  2. Muscular systems

    blood capillaries, generate ATP by the aerobic system, hence the term oxidative fibres, split ATP at a slow rate, slow contraction velocity, resistant to fatigue, found in large numbers in postural muscles, needed for aerobic activities like long distance running.

  1. The skeletal systems relative to Sport and exercise actions

    Each collar bone is rod-shaped and roughly S-shaped. It lies horizontally and articulates with the upper end of the breastbone, right in the middle and front, just above the first rib. Collar bones serve as a support for the shoulder blades in front and keep the shoulder blades back so that the arms can hang freely at the sides of the body.

  2. Healing Process

    It continues approximately for a year or more as collagen fibres becomes orientated along the lines of mechanical stress to which the tissue is usually subjected. The muscle fibres are permanent cells that do not reproduce in response to injury or training.

  1. Skeletal Systems

    This bone is at an angle where we can speak and do all our normal daily activities with our jaw but is also well designed for its function which it primarily to help aid the digestive process. The spinal column (irregular bone)

  2. The human bodys immune system

    Components The immune system has six major components, three of which are different kinds of cells and the other three are soluble proteins. All six components can be found circulating in the blood in some form. Cells The three kinds of immune system cells are granulocytes, monocyte/macrophages, and lymphocytes.

  1. Movement within the Body and the Cardiovascular System

    glands' www.wikipedia.com/vagus+nerve * Salpingopharyngeus muscle * Levator veli palatini muscle * Muscles of the larynx * Palatopharyngeus muscle * Superior pharyngeal constrictors * middle pharyngeal constrictors * inferior pharyngeal constrictors * Palatoglossus muscle the vagus nerves purpose is to regulated and control heart rate, gastrointestinal peristalsis, sweating, and muscle movements

  2. Physiology Within Sport

    two by-products these are Carbon dioxide which is exhaled and Hydrogen which is then transported to the Electron Transport chain. Electron Transport Chain From the Krebs Cycle Hydrogen is created, this then is transported by hydrogen carriers whereby it can enter the Electron Transport chain, this stage occurs in the

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work