• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Energy Systems in the Human Body

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐Energy Systems ATP is broken down by the enzyme ATPase to form ADP and Pi. Energy is release exothermically from this reaction. ATP can be used in the body for up to 3 seconds of muscular work at high intensity. The bond that holds the phosphate to the ATP molecule has potential energy, which when broken released energy. ATP/PC System takes place in the sarcoplasm. PC is broken down by the enzyme creatine kinase to produce a phosphate, creating and energy. The phosphate from this reaction can be used to resynthesize ATP, by reacting ADP + P + energy. This is an endothermic reaction. Overall, there is a yield of 1:1, so there has been a 0 net gain of ATP. ...read more.

Middle

Glucose is first broken down into pyruvic acid by the enzyme PFKase, releasing 2 molecules of ATP. In the absence of oxygen, the pyruvic acid if further broken down into lactic acid by the enzyme LDHase. Lactic acid is a fatiguing product, so therefore, pH levels will decrease, and enzymes will denature and no longer work as biological catalysts. This process can resynthesize ATP between 10 seconds and 3 minutes at high intensity. This is an anaerobic process, so no oxygen is required. A total yield of ATP is 1:2. Events such as the 800 meters are best suited to this system, as the event is still high-intensity, and lasts between 10 seconds and 3 minutes. The last system is the aerobic system which is split up into 3 stages. ...read more.

Conclusion

The final stage of the aerobic system is the electron transport chain. This takes place in the cristae of the mitochondria. The electron carriers and the hydrogen atoms from the Krebs cycle enter the cristae of the mitochondria. They combine to form NADH and FADH, and are carried down the electron transport chain, where hydrogen splits up into H+ and e- ions. The hydrogen electrons pass down the electron transport chain, which provides energy to resynthesize 34 molecules of ATP. The hydrogen ions (H+) combine with oxygen to form a water molecule. This is released due to sweating, breathing or urine. Overall, in the aerobic system a total yield of 1:38 has been produced of ATP. This process can resynthesize ATP between 3 minutes and 1 hour. This system works aerobically. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Physiology Within Sport

    carried out the more efficient the heart becomes, however the resting values of cardiac output do not alter. As an individual carries out more endurance based activities their capillaries go through a process known as capillarisation this is where the capillary rates increase, this allows oxygen to become more efficiently

  2. A level Project, Personal Exercise Program on Netball.

    Push the legs apart as far as possible by pushing against the thigh pads. After completing the exercise, recover to the starting position. Check machinery before use. Keep back straight making sure knees are firmly in line with pads. Improves strength in the gluteals which will assist endurance.

  1. Movement within the Body and the Cardiovascular System

    for this neuro transmitter. ACh in the PNS operates with two types of receptors, muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors. Vagus Nerve This is the tenth of the twelve cranial nerves. It is the only nerve that starts at the medulla oblongata. It then continues its length, through the jugular foramen, down the head and

  2. Skeletal Systems

    It also holds immovable joints and at birth this is one of the softer bones and takes a while to fully develop. The soft latter is called the fontanel. Its shape is suited to hold the brain as the brain is quite egg shaped and as different people have different brain sizes their head sizes will vary.

  1. The skeletal systems relative to Sport and exercise actions

    The Coccyx The coccyx consists of 4 fused tail vertebrae which are small and have a relatively simple structure. They do not resemble the structure of a typical vertebra. The muscles of the buttocks are attached to the coccyx. It is commonly referred to as the tailbone. The Sternum (Breastbone)

  2. Healing Process

    Stage 3: Remodelling phase The remodelling phase is the final stage of injury recovery. This period involves maturation of the newly formed tissue, decreased fibroblast activity, increased organisation of extra cellular matrix, and a return to normal histochemical activity. In soft tissue the process begins, about three weeks post injury, overlapping the repair and regeneration phase.

  1. The human bodys immune system

    * Chemical defense. Fluids such as sweat, saliva and tears contain chemicals that create harsh environments for microorganisms sweat contains lactic acid and the enzyme lysozyme, both of which slow down bacterial growth. Stomach acid kills many microorganisms that manage to get that far.

  2. Muscles in the Human Body

    Second-class; when the muscle force and resistive force act on the same side of the fulcrum, with the muscle force acting through the level longer than that through which the resistive force acts - e.g. raising the body up onto the toes.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work