• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Energy Systems in the Human Body

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐Energy Systems ATP is broken down by the enzyme ATPase to form ADP and Pi. Energy is release exothermically from this reaction. ATP can be used in the body for up to 3 seconds of muscular work at high intensity. The bond that holds the phosphate to the ATP molecule has potential energy, which when broken released energy. ATP/PC System takes place in the sarcoplasm. PC is broken down by the enzyme creatine kinase to produce a phosphate, creating and energy. The phosphate from this reaction can be used to resynthesize ATP, by reacting ADP + P + energy. This is an endothermic reaction. Overall, there is a yield of 1:1, so there has been a 0 net gain of ATP. ...read more.

Middle

Glucose is first broken down into pyruvic acid by the enzyme PFKase, releasing 2 molecules of ATP. In the absence of oxygen, the pyruvic acid if further broken down into lactic acid by the enzyme LDHase. Lactic acid is a fatiguing product, so therefore, pH levels will decrease, and enzymes will denature and no longer work as biological catalysts. This process can resynthesize ATP between 10 seconds and 3 minutes at high intensity. This is an anaerobic process, so no oxygen is required. A total yield of ATP is 1:2. Events such as the 800 meters are best suited to this system, as the event is still high-intensity, and lasts between 10 seconds and 3 minutes. The last system is the aerobic system which is split up into 3 stages. ...read more.

Conclusion

The final stage of the aerobic system is the electron transport chain. This takes place in the cristae of the mitochondria. The electron carriers and the hydrogen atoms from the Krebs cycle enter the cristae of the mitochondria. They combine to form NADH and FADH, and are carried down the electron transport chain, where hydrogen splits up into H+ and e- ions. The hydrogen electrons pass down the electron transport chain, which provides energy to resynthesize 34 molecules of ATP. The hydrogen ions (H+) combine with oxygen to form a water molecule. This is released due to sweating, breathing or urine. Overall, in the aerobic system a total yield of 1:38 has been produced of ATP. This process can resynthesize ATP between 3 minutes and 1 hour. This system works aerobically. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Physiology Within Sport

    the blood making the blood to become more acidic this causes the athlete to tire quicker as the increased level of hydrogen ions eventually prevents the enhanced glycolytic enzyme functioning, however persistent training at anaerobic levels increases the athletes ability to train longer throughout the high acidity blood flow. 41.

  2. A level Project, Personal Exercise Program on Netball.

    rest Session 5 Leg press 8 2 80 2 minutes abductors 8 2 40 2 minutes adductors 8 2 40 2 minutes Abdominal crunch 8 2 20 2 minutes Chest press 8 2 20 2 minutes Seated hamstring curl 8 2 40 2 minutes Dips-pull ups 8 2 Not assisted

  1. Movement within the Body and the Cardiovascular System

    to the abdomen, it then travels from the spinal cord in the carotid sheath, laterally placed to the carotid artery, it then ends behind the left bronchus. 'The vagus nerve supplies motor parasympathetic fibers to all the organs except the suprarenal (adrenal)

  2. The human bodys immune system

    When we are injured blood clots at the injury site, sealing the breach to prevent entry of bacteria. * Biological defense. Normally a vast number of non-pathogenic bacteria live on the skin and mucous membranes. These do not harm the body but they compete with pathogenic bacteria, preventing them from gaining a foothold from which to launch a full-scale infection.

  1. Nervous system.

    This consists of a wave of electrical current called an 'Action Potential'. Effect can be displayed on an oscilloscope. Impulse travels at a definite velocity (e.g. frog 25m sec-1 ). Velocity falls with a decrease in temperature. Majority of axons extremely fine, rarely exceed 20 ?m in diameter.

  2. Skeletal Systems

    It also holds immovable joints and at birth this is one of the softer bones and takes a while to fully develop. The soft latter is called the fontanel. Its shape is suited to hold the brain as the brain is quite egg shaped and as different people have different brain sizes their head sizes will vary.

  1. The skeletal systems relative to Sport and exercise actions

    The vertebral column forms the central part of the skeleton. It supports the skull and protects the spinal cord. It also serves as attachment for the ribs, the pectoral and pelvic girdles. The vertebral column consists of separate bones, the vertebrae.

  2. Muscles in the Human Body

    Second-class; when the muscle force and resistive force act on the same side of the fulcrum, with the muscle force acting through the level longer than that through which the resistive force acts - e.g. raising the body up onto the toes.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work