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Energy Systems in the Human Body

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Introduction

´╗┐Energy Systems ATP is broken down by the enzyme ATPase to form ADP and Pi. Energy is release exothermically from this reaction. ATP can be used in the body for up to 3 seconds of muscular work at high intensity. The bond that holds the phosphate to the ATP molecule has potential energy, which when broken released energy. ATP/PC System takes place in the sarcoplasm. PC is broken down by the enzyme creatine kinase to produce a phosphate, creating and energy. The phosphate from this reaction can be used to resynthesize ATP, by reacting ADP + P + energy. This is an endothermic reaction. Overall, there is a yield of 1:1, so there has been a 0 net gain of ATP. ...read more.

Middle

Glucose is first broken down into pyruvic acid by the enzyme PFKase, releasing 2 molecules of ATP. In the absence of oxygen, the pyruvic acid if further broken down into lactic acid by the enzyme LDHase. Lactic acid is a fatiguing product, so therefore, pH levels will decrease, and enzymes will denature and no longer work as biological catalysts. This process can resynthesize ATP between 10 seconds and 3 minutes at high intensity. This is an anaerobic process, so no oxygen is required. A total yield of ATP is 1:2. Events such as the 800 meters are best suited to this system, as the event is still high-intensity, and lasts between 10 seconds and 3 minutes. The last system is the aerobic system which is split up into 3 stages. ...read more.

Conclusion

The final stage of the aerobic system is the electron transport chain. This takes place in the cristae of the mitochondria. The electron carriers and the hydrogen atoms from the Krebs cycle enter the cristae of the mitochondria. They combine to form NADH and FADH, and are carried down the electron transport chain, where hydrogen splits up into H+ and e- ions. The hydrogen electrons pass down the electron transport chain, which provides energy to resynthesize 34 molecules of ATP. The hydrogen ions (H+) combine with oxygen to form a water molecule. This is released due to sweating, breathing or urine. Overall, in the aerobic system a total yield of 1:38 has been produced of ATP. This process can resynthesize ATP between 3 minutes and 1 hour. This system works aerobically. ...read more.

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