Exercise Physiology - Skeletal System
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Unit 7 Exercise Physiology Skeletal System The functions of the Skeleton are to: o Provide Protection o Movement o Blood Production o Support o Shape o Mineral Production Definitions of the functions: Protection: The skeleton is designed in such a way that the delicate parts of the body are protected. These parts are major organs, the brain is protected by the skull, the lungs and heart are protected by the ribs and the vertical column protects the spinal cord. For example you will see this happen in many sports such as boxing, the skull protects the brain from impact of a punch during a fight. Support/ Shape: The skeletal system gives the human body structure. It supports the internal organs that are held within the body in a network of tissue. Bones give us form. In sports support and shape are also used for example in a rugby scum, to body needs to be placed in such a way to keep the back aligned. Movement/ Attachment: The skeleton is jointed to allow movement. A joint is an articulation of two or more connecting bones, providing us with either stability or movement.
Tough fibrous tissue lies between the ends of the bone, which are dove tailed together. For example the sutures between the bones in the skull. Cartilaginous Joint (slightly moveable)- A cartilaginous joint allows some slight movement. The ends of bones are covered in articular or hyaline cartilage, separated by pads of white fibrocartilage. Slight Movement is made possible because the pads of cartilage compress. In addition these pads act as shock absorbers. For example the intervertabal discs in the spine. Synovial Joint (freely moving)- A synovial joint is a freely moving joint and is characterized by the presence of joint capsule and cavity. The type of joint is subdivided according to movement possibilities, which are dictated by the bony surfaces that form the joint. For example cartilage that reduce fiction in the knee joint. There are different types of synovial joints that allow for different types of movement, they include: * Ball and Socket * Pivot * Condyloid * Hinge * Saddle Ball and Socket Joint- The almost hemispherical surface of one bone fits into a cup like depression of the other.
Saddle Joint- Convex and concave bone surfaces are placed against each other. This allows movement in two places at right angles to each other. Where the thumb meets the wrist, the bones fit up against each other like a saddle fits over the back of a horse. For example any racket sport would show an example of this joint. Synovial Joint Structure The synovial joint is made up of a number of components: * Articular or hyaline cartilage: a smooth, shiny cartilage that covers the ends of bones and absorbs synovial fluid. * Joint Capsule: a sleeve of fibrous tissue surrounding the joint. * Ligament: a sleeve of tough, fibrous connective tissue, which is an extension of the joint capsule. * Synovial Membrane: a sheet of epithelial cells inside the joint capsule * Synovial Fluid: the fluid enclosed in a joint, some of which is absorbed by hyaline cartilage during exercise. * Pad of Fat: pads of fat that occupy gaps in and around the joint. * Bursae: are little sacs of synovial fluid. * Menisci: are layers of fibro-cartilage located at the articulating surfaces of joints. Here is an example of the components what make up the knee joint: Sam Morley Exercise Pyhsiology 11
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