• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

factors affecting performance

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Unit 5, Section A: Factors Effecting Performance The use of different methods of feedback to improve techniques in hockey. Feedback is an important element in developing a new skill and is defined as "information received by the individual or group either during or after completion of the performance" (Complete A-Z Physical Education Handbook). In order to learn and expand on skills both guidance and feedback are necessary. Although guidance is associated with feedback there is a clear difference, as feedback is information regarding what we have already completed where as guidance is with reference to the task ahead. There are many categories of feedback that can be used to help the learning of a hockey skill depending upon the environment and condition of the skill taking place. Positive feedback is a fundamental part of learning as "feedback about a performance should outline what was performed correctly" (advanced PE for EDEXCEL -pg 112) meaning that the superior element of a skill is constantly repeated through using deliberate praise (the athlete now perceiving what part of the skill is correct) whist recurrently developing the elements which need improving. Eventually the whole skill can be performed at a high standard through positively expressing accurate skill performances to the learning athlete. A hit in hockey consists of a variety of techniques to collectively join the skill together, therefore if the performers' feet are in the correct position in relation to the ball but their hands require adjustment in order for further development to ...read more.

Middle

There are two stages of the augmented feedback which provide two diverse foundations of how to improve a certain skill. "Knowledge of performance (KP) is regarding information about the technique and performance" (www.teachpe.com). This can be provided verbally from the coach or visually via video using both positive and negative feedback. KP enables the athlete to establish a kinaesthetic reference for the correct movement, for example, by analyzing an aerial using video technology allows the athlete to experience his/her movements first hand at all different angles. Also due to rapid development in technology, at present a performer's movement can be positioned beside actions of another athlete performing the same skill (preferably an elite sportsman/woman) meaning that now comparison can take place between you and that superior athlete. Through using this technique judgment and evaluation are key factors which could help any hockey player develop more rapidly. "Knowledge of results (KR) is a further category of feedback which uses information which regards the result of the athlete's performance" (www.teachpe.com), for example how many penalties corners, shots on target or number of penetrations in the D did we execute throughout the 70 minute game. Using this information is significant in hockey especially when complete at national league level, where consistency in play (four times a week) and players (16 registered athletes) is constant. Gathering data from consecutive hockey games and identifying what minute their team appears to let the most goals in throughout the 70 minute block is an example of KR which may become vital in adapting team and individual play due to receiving this feedback. ...read more.

Conclusion

Less experienced performers however need this feedback to develop further before it is programmed into them by constant extrinsic and intrinsic information. Lower level participants should in addition receive supplementary concurrent feedback when learning a skill rather than terminal feedback as when a skill is being performed for the first time your brain will pick up instant knowledge of how to carry out the skill a further time, therefore eventually due to repeated actions the skill will become a natural process. If an athlete is not told how the skill was performed inaccurately, and how to correct the mistakes the athlete will then acquire bad habits and find the skill harder to correct later on in life, when the natural process has already occurred. This is because the body will feel the movement taking place under a kinaesthetic process where by the body is acting without conscious control. An example of this would exist in a hockey game when picking up the ball on the move. If an athlete had learnt to pick up a ball so that it bounced up off the stick every time this particular skill was performed, then as the athlete progressed into higher levels this would cost him/her to loose the ball due to other players becoming more capable to take advantage of their weakness and step up to take the ball off them. This kinaethetic phase would be hard to correct once the skill is programmed into an athlete and therefore if it is not put correct may prevent participation at the top level. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill essays

  1. Barriers Affecting Ethnic Minorities in Sport

    This consists of covering the hair and wearing modest clothing by covering the arms and legs. Islam encourages building up an integrated personality and stresses sports such as swimming, archery and horse-riding, encouraging both men and women to engage in physical activity in order to maintain healthy lifestyles.

  2. Analysing Performance: Badminton Observation of a player in a game and in practice

    Simple practice A simple way to practice this shot is to get another person to keep on playing you shots that you have to return using the drop shot. You could jus play a rally in which the opponent hits it lightly and low over the net allowing you to go and play the drop shot 3.

  1. Self analysis of weaknesses in table tennis - Comparison to elite model 2

    them to think about the shot meaning they may be forced to play a shot they usually wouldn't, putting me on the front foot throughout the course of the rally. * State what the possible causes for this weakness and theory behind it; A possible cause for my weakness is

  2. Personal Exercise Programme (PEP).

    Swiss ball shoulder press: I didn't make any progress from last session in this either - I did two sets with 10 kg and a third with 8 kg. Ab crunch: I was very pleased with this exercise as I managed to achieve one of my session aims and completed all three sets using 32.5 kg.

  1. Psychological Factors

    they have to play in front of 70,000 people in a world cup match its completely different. I play really well when I'm not under pressure, but when I have a game I sometimes get a bit nervous and don't play as well as I could.

  2. Self analysis of football performance - Comparison to elite model

    * Stabilization at the abdominal muscles and the spinal postural muscles * Hip flexion at the rectus femoris and the adductor group in the right hip Execution: * Isometric contraction of gastrocnemius of kicking leg * Eccentric contraction of

  1. A2 pe coursework

    Core skill two - Shooting and rebounding Strengths: * Jenny uses her arm to aim where she wants to shoot the ball, which in turn increased the accuracy of her shots, and boosted her confidence. * Jenny bent her arms and legs when shooting, giving the ball the extra power

  2. Critically analyse your own performance in your chosen sport using suitable notational methods. Include ...

    This type of analysis doesn't always tell the how the performer is really performing it only gives maybe an overview although some statistics are better than others. A striker may have only had three chances in a game and missed all of them, but might have actually got in good

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work