• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

factors affecting performance

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Unit 5, Section A: Factors Effecting Performance The use of different methods of feedback to improve techniques in hockey. Feedback is an important element in developing a new skill and is defined as "information received by the individual or group either during or after completion of the performance" (Complete A-Z Physical Education Handbook). In order to learn and expand on skills both guidance and feedback are necessary. Although guidance is associated with feedback there is a clear difference, as feedback is information regarding what we have already completed where as guidance is with reference to the task ahead. There are many categories of feedback that can be used to help the learning of a hockey skill depending upon the environment and condition of the skill taking place. Positive feedback is a fundamental part of learning as "feedback about a performance should outline what was performed correctly" (advanced PE for EDEXCEL -pg 112) meaning that the superior element of a skill is constantly repeated through using deliberate praise (the athlete now perceiving what part of the skill is correct) whist recurrently developing the elements which need improving. Eventually the whole skill can be performed at a high standard through positively expressing accurate skill performances to the learning athlete. A hit in hockey consists of a variety of techniques to collectively join the skill together, therefore if the performers' feet are in the correct position in relation to the ball but their hands require adjustment in order for further development to ...read more.

Middle

There are two stages of the augmented feedback which provide two diverse foundations of how to improve a certain skill. "Knowledge of performance (KP) is regarding information about the technique and performance" (www.teachpe.com). This can be provided verbally from the coach or visually via video using both positive and negative feedback. KP enables the athlete to establish a kinaesthetic reference for the correct movement, for example, by analyzing an aerial using video technology allows the athlete to experience his/her movements first hand at all different angles. Also due to rapid development in technology, at present a performer's movement can be positioned beside actions of another athlete performing the same skill (preferably an elite sportsman/woman) meaning that now comparison can take place between you and that superior athlete. Through using this technique judgment and evaluation are key factors which could help any hockey player develop more rapidly. "Knowledge of results (KR) is a further category of feedback which uses information which regards the result of the athlete's performance" (www.teachpe.com), for example how many penalties corners, shots on target or number of penetrations in the D did we execute throughout the 70 minute game. Using this information is significant in hockey especially when complete at national league level, where consistency in play (four times a week) and players (16 registered athletes) is constant. Gathering data from consecutive hockey games and identifying what minute their team appears to let the most goals in throughout the 70 minute block is an example of KR which may become vital in adapting team and individual play due to receiving this feedback. ...read more.

Conclusion

Less experienced performers however need this feedback to develop further before it is programmed into them by constant extrinsic and intrinsic information. Lower level participants should in addition receive supplementary concurrent feedback when learning a skill rather than terminal feedback as when a skill is being performed for the first time your brain will pick up instant knowledge of how to carry out the skill a further time, therefore eventually due to repeated actions the skill will become a natural process. If an athlete is not told how the skill was performed inaccurately, and how to correct the mistakes the athlete will then acquire bad habits and find the skill harder to correct later on in life, when the natural process has already occurred. This is because the body will feel the movement taking place under a kinaesthetic process where by the body is acting without conscious control. An example of this would exist in a hockey game when picking up the ball on the move. If an athlete had learnt to pick up a ball so that it bounced up off the stick every time this particular skill was performed, then as the athlete progressed into higher levels this would cost him/her to loose the ball due to other players becoming more capable to take advantage of their weakness and step up to take the ball off them. This kinaethetic phase would be hard to correct once the skill is programmed into an athlete and therefore if it is not put correct may prevent participation at the top level. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill essays

  1. Self analysis of football performance - Comparison to elite model

    Preparation: The defensive header is one of my strongest attributes however, compared to Gerard, my technique is somewhat flawed. During the preparation of the header, I do not meet the ball from a side-on position which prevents me from generating as much power behind the ball and also means I am unprotected from clashing heads with my opponent.

  2. Aim: to plan, perform, monitor and evaluate a 10-week training program for a specific ...

    I will continue to include weight training into my overall programme and aim to gradually increase the work intensity, after reducing the recovery time between the different weights. Warm Up: For best results, push against a wall. Calf Correct Foot Position Foot alignment should be shoulder width apart; you can

  1. Barriers Affecting Ethnic Minorities in Sport

    This consists of covering the hair and wearing modest clothing by covering the arms and legs. Islam encourages building up an integrated personality and stresses sports such as swimming, archery and horse-riding, encouraging both men and women to engage in physical activity in order to maintain healthy lifestyles.

  2. Free essay

    A2 PE Factors Affecting Performance - Anxiety / Arousal

    useful in getting maximum performance from an athlete (Syer & Connolly, 1984). Refer to appendix 5 for definitions. If the performer is under-aroused he would need to use self-talk to convince himself that he will succeed or get his coach to talk to him.

  1. In what way or when (under which circumstances) will goal setting be effective in ...

    yet remains highly debated with in the sport, exercise and performance context due to inconsistency of results between studies (Locke, 1991; Weinberg & Weigland, 1993). Locke (1991) stated that this was due to methodological flaws in previous studies. Such problems included failure to makes goals difficult; failure to match groups

  2. PPP Action plan 2003.

    Lakers drill and hand to eye co-ordination practises, I completed the lakers drill in 4 bounces with a scored lay-up consistently, but when I push for three, I can't score the lay-up. Still inspired by this personal best, I forget the scheduled plan and work solely on the bench press,

  1. My main aim is to complete a training programme, focusing on mainly developing the ...

    passing over the marked line twice) as 1 by mistake. If this was so, I would have actually completed 64 bounces, a much more accurate score compared with the following sessions. As for session 2, 3 and 4 I think that my scores differ as the actual height of jump

  2. Self analysis of weaknesses in table tennis - Comparison to elite model 2

    His bat is also at an angle, this is so that he can disguise the serve and that his not giving anything away, therefore the opponent will find it hard how to return the ball. Execution When Paul takes the shot, he throws the ball up six inches to the

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work