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Fitness Tests For Football.

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Introduction

FITNESS TESTS FOR FOOTBALL As with most team sports, there are many components of fitness that are important for success. Aerobic fitness would be one of the most important attributes, closely followed by anaerobic fitness and running speed and agility. Fitness Component Example tests Comments Cardio-Vascular Endurance The shuttle run (beep) test would usually be the most appropriate test for testing a football team. Aerobic fitness is a very important component of fitness for football. Flexibility The sit and reach test can be done for lower back and hamstring flexibility. Good hamstring flexibility is import for football players in the ball kicking skill. Strength and Power The vertical jump test can be performed to measure leg power. Maximal strength tests for specific exercises should be conducted. Strength (and power tests) should also be done to determine strength levels and to monitor strength changes in conjunction with training programs. Muscular endurance Abdominal Endurance Tests Sit-up Test Pull-up Test Push-up Test Squat Test This is the ability to repeat a series of muscle contractions without fatiguing. It is different from cardiovascular endurance because it involves the muscle fatiguing rather than a limitation in the amount of oxygen being supplied or utilized by the muscles. Body Fat Body fat can be measured using the Skin fold method. If this is not available, monitoring body weight changes would give an indication of body fat changes, assuming no change in muscle mass. Excess body fat would affect the football player's ability to move freely around the field, and the extra weight will increase fatigue. All the tests in the above table can be found below: The Bleep Test So what is the bleep test? * It is a multi-stage fitness test in which you must do 20 metre shuttle runs in time with the bleeps until the bleeps get too quick for you. * It is a maximal test which means it will take you to your fitness limit. ...read more.

Middle

Attempt to touch the wall at the highest point of the jump. The difference in distance between the reach height and the jump height is the score. The best of three attempts is recorded. * Modifications: Jump height can also be measured using a timing mat which measures the time the feet are off the mat. From the time, jump height can be calculated. To be accurate, you must ensure the feet land back on the mat with legs nearly fully extended. Other test modifications are to perform the test with no arm movement (one hand on hip, the other raised above the head) to isolate the leg muscles and reduce the effect of variations in coordination of the arm movements. The test can also be performed off one leg, with a step into the jump, or with a run-up, depending on the relevance to the sport involved. * Scoring: The jump height Jump is usually recorded as the score in distance. The table below provides a ranking scale for adult athletes based on my observations, and will give a general idea of what is a good score. rating males (cm) females (cm) excellent > 70 > 60 very good 61-70 51-60 above average 51-60 41-50 average 41-50 31-40 below average 31-40 21-30 poor 21-30 11-20 very poor < 21 < 11 There is also a calculation to convert jump height into a power score. This is a formula I have come across, I am not sure about its accuracy or how it is derived. Power= 2.21*weight*root of jump distance. * Equipment required: measuring tape or marked wall, chalk for marking wall (or timing mat). * Advantages: simple and quick to perform. 1-RM Tests (Repetition maximum tests) * Description / procedure: One repetition maximum test (1-RM) is a popular method of measuring isotonic muscle strength. It is a measure of the maximal force a subject can lift with one repetition. ...read more.

Conclusion

7 site skinfold: * chest * triceps * subscapular * axilla * suprailiac * abdomen * thigh 3 site skinfold (Men): * chest * abdomen * thigh 3 Site Skinfold (Women) * tricep * suprailiac * thigh How accurate is it? If each test is performed correctly according to the recommended guidelines, there is a +/- 3% error. Validity (compared to underwater weighing): 7 site skinfold (r = .90), 3 site skinfold (r = .89).* Advantages: * Easy to use once skill has been mastered * Does not require much time * Noninvasive method * Inexpensive way of estimating percent body fat Disadvantages: * Technical sources of error * Mostly concerned with subcutaneous fat (under the skin) * May not be an ideal measurement for those who are obese and very lean Body mass index (BMI) BMI stands for Body Mass Index. It takes a person's weight in kilograms and divides it by their height in meters squared. For instance, if your height is 1.82 meters, the divisor of the calculation will be (1.82 * 1.82) = 3.3124. If your weight is 70.5 kilograms, then your BMI is 21.3 (70.5 / 3.3124) BMI = Weight / Height2 Weight in kilograms (pounds x 0.45359237) Height in meters (inches x 0.0254) Description / procedure: BMI is calculated from body mass (M) and height (H). BMI = M / (H x H), where M = body mass in kilograms and H = height in meters. The higher the score usually indicating higher levels of body fat Scoring: underweight <20 healthy range 20-25 overweight 25-30 obese >30 Equipment required: scales and stadiometer as for weight and height. Target population: BMI is often used to determine the level of health risk associated with obesity. Advantages: simple calculation from standard measurements Disadvantages: BMI can be inaccurate, for example with large and muscular though lean athletes scoring high BMI levels which incorrectly rates them as obese. Other comments: Other measures of body composition would be preferable if available. Matthew Jeffries ...read more.

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