• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

fitts and posner

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Describe Fitt's and Posner's phases of learning and explain how you would structure practices to enhance performance All aspects of sport require learning. Although you may be talented and learn quickly, or the opposite and take longer to learn. 'Learning is a more or less permanent change in performance brought about by experience' Knapp 1973. You also need the experience as well as the skill to become an elite athlete. The theory also contradicts the quote "practices makes perfect", Fitt's and Posner's theory is more like correct practice with correct technique makes perfect practice". Fitt's and Posner's (1967) have introduced the three phases of learning to skill acquisition, these are, cognitive, associative and autonomous. The stage should be learnt in sequence each stage is designed for an amateur athlete start with the cognitive stage. A coach would design a training practice depending on the skill of the performer a raw athlete would start at cognitive and Once the skill has been perfected then the athlete can move on to the next stage. Even though the theory sounds quite straight forward and you would presume an athlete would progress using this method there are some flaws. ...read more.

Middle

You can also watch demonstrations by people that can also do the movement correctly. This way they can associate what their doing with what they've seen. Racket sports- e.g. tennis, as always the leaner will start on the cognitive stage. To learn the correct stance and just to hit the tennis ball, the leaner will see the visual standing with a clear stance. With his/her feet apart for balance and alert and waiting for the ball with the racket in the starting position by the side of player and ready. Once the ball has been hit towards his/her side of the net he/she will bring her arm backwards to get a swing and bring it back forward as the ball begins to drop this action will allow a hit up and over the net. Individual sports- e.g. Gymnastics For gymnastics the main key points are balance, co-ordination, and skill. Learners watching someone performing gymnastics will notice the accuracy and timing that the performer uses. An example would be, walking along a beam. The learner see an image of someone walking across the beam with no difficulties, with his/her with equally balanced, with a clear straight position with his/her head up, concentrating on were the performer is going. ...read more.

Conclusion

No difficult skills should be taught such as drop shot or spins balls, maybe introduce volleys, and the smash to their game. Individual sport- Gymnastics The gymnast at this stage will also be working on the quality of performance and needs help doing this, again, from feedback. Once the feedback is given the learner may notice things that were being done wrong that he/she had not noticed before. The autonomous stage, is the final phase of the skill learning process. Movements are made without mental planning, almost automatic and this is only obtained after much practise and quality repetition Mistakes may still be made but at this stage the performer will be able to recognise his own mistake and say what was done wrong, why he/she did it wrong and how he/she can do it right. The movements are performed fluently with no conscious thought about them being wrong. Movements appear automatic and seem to come effortlessly. "An expert can represent problems in terms of their abstracts. This is easier method store and to represent problems" (Anderson. J. R, 1995). If practise is not continued whilst at this stage the performer may return to the associative stage. Not all performers reach this stage in all skills. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill essays

  1. Self analysis of weaknesses in table tennis - Comparison to elite model 2

    This will therefore give me more confidence within the shot and will make me use it more within games therefore improving my overall defence within the game. This will be a variety of shots towards to forehand, so that I push the ball back meaning that im used to different

  2. Skill Classification and Information Processing.

    sections to practice them individually to then hopefully bring together in a final performance. For example the trainer might want to practice each section of the service which requires a perceptual trace to follow so they can then easily be put together by the trainee (i.e.

  1. Personal Exercise Programme

    In my exercise programme I am doing weights for all of these parts of the body, in the hope of getting stronger in all these departments, therefore my exercise programme is specifically related to the activity I am training for.

  2. PPP Action plan 2003.

    is eventually developed and stored in my long term memory, so the process will no longer be cognitive. Leaving me valuable time to focus my attention on other aspects or stimuli from the environment. Skill two. Pushing the ball up the court.

  1. Personal Exercise Programme.

    My PEP is based upon strength training which generally stresses the ATP and PC system; therefore I shall focus upon this system which affects this - fast. The fast component, otherwise known as alactic debt or alactic recovery oxygen consumption refers to when oxygen is required to 'regenerate the phosphagen

  2. The role of feedback

    reply as appreciation for the work put in so they will carry on. Motivational feedback is mainly given at breaks during matches e.g. half-time in football so that if the performer is playing well they will carry on and if they aren't playing well they will encourage them and say the positives so far.

  1. Personal Exercise programme

    * Isometric- this develops muscles by contracting them without movement. The advantages of this are that it develops static strength and adaptable to specific sports. The disadvantages are that it drastically raises the blood pressure quickly and so can be dangerous.

  2. Personal Exercise Programme (PEP).

    The aim of a warm up is to prepare the body for exercise. A warm up has the following physiological benefits: - The release of adrenaline increases heart rate and causes capillaries to dilate. This means that more blood/oxygen reaches the muscles and faster.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work