• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Fitts & Posner Coursework

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Describe "Fitt's and Posner's" phases of learning and explain how you would structure practises to enhance a performance In this essay I will explain Fitt's and Posner's phases of learning and how I would structure practises to enhance performance. By practising a skill we can become better. Fitts and Posner theories were that everyone has to go through stages of learning, known as the cognitive, associative and autonomous stages of learning. Depending how good a person is at a particular sport, they will fall into a certain category. An example of this is Wayne Rooney. At a young age he was introduced to football and played amateur football from a young age, becoming one of the youngest strikers in football history. However by learning a skill in sport involves the development of skills by practice. An example of this is shooting practise - you can only become good by practising to kick the ball in between goalposts. Until a person becomes confident enough that they score a goal, they will naturally fall into the next category. The three stages of learning can be divided into two main categories; associationists and cognitivists. Associationists views learning of a sport as the link of particular stimulus and particular responses. Cognitivists see it as a function of the brain, where we learn through the understanding and knowledge of the sport. There are 3 stages of learning according to Fitts and Posner. ...read more.

Middle

Autonomous Learning at the autonomous stage is where the skill is done without conscious thought. The movements of the performer are fluent, consistent and athletically pleasing. There is an advanced stage of learning where the elements of the skill have become part of long term memory and are automatically produced in response to a an appropriate stimulus. The skill is automatic. The attention of the performer focuses on the next movement, for example tactics. Consistent practise is required to reinforce being at the autonomous stage. Success rate is 9/10 out of 10. In tennis for example a player would be able to perform a serve whilst contemplating what their opponent will do next, rather than being focusing on the technical side of the serve. Not all performers reach the autonomous stage in all skills. For those who do, if practise is not maintained revision to the associative stage will occur. Closed skills such as throwing events can be finely tuned so that a high level of performance can be produced. "Learning in its simplest form is the development of a position where we can't perform a skill to a stage where we can perform it." Knapp, 1973 The quote means that learning is a more or less permanent change in performance brought about by experience. Knapp is suggesting that once something is learnt, it remains with us, thus supporting the statement: Once you learn to ride a bike, you never forget'. ...read more.

Conclusion

There are no substitutions so the athletes' stamina must be high. By hitting a ball for a long period of time every other turn there must be a large amount of upper body strength. In order to help the athlete achieve this, the coach should set the athlete physical training such as sprints, press-up, sit-ups and bicep curls. Technique is needed when serving, volleying; as being able to retain balance quickly is essential. An example of this is Andre Agassi. "...he focused more on physical conditioning than in the past and became one of the fittest players on the tour. His upper-body strength allowed him to bench press 350 lb (159 kg), which helped him retain pace on his shots late into a match, as well as adding to his serve power. He had remarkable endurance and rarely appeared tired on court." Golf is a sport where the athlete has to be very concentrated on the game. Having a perfect technique allows one to compete to a high level. In order to help raise concentration levels the coach must remove all apprehension and put the athlete in a confident frame of mind. To help an athlete raise concentration before a game the coach could give the athlete a structured diet. Junk food will slow down the concentration rate. Tiger Woods had a bad putting strike so he went home and perfected it. "Well, that's one of the worst putting weeks I've had in a long time, very frustrating. When I get home I am going to practise until I get it right. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Contemporary Studies section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Contemporary Studies essays

  1. Coaches always give performers opportunities to develop their range of skills. Sir Alex and ...

    This is where elite coaches take advantage and lower league coaches have to do what they can with the time possible. You get coaches like Tony who are no nonsense and use the time he has efficiently, and you get coaches who just play a game for the two hours they have or just do shooting practice.

  2. Structure of P.E. The structure and implantation of the physical education curriculum consist ...

    the PESSYP strategy is five hours of sports per week, 2 hours of curriculum PE, 1 hour of sports organised by schools on the schools site and 2 hours of a mixture of school sport and community sports organised either by community, clubs or school.

  1. Weaknesses Coursework

    The longer my innings goes on the more I hit the ball in the air whilst cutting. I think this is because a lack of muscular endurance in my tricep muscle. The reasons for this weakness are: * Hydrogen Ion Accumulation- During exercise larger amounts of lactic acid are produced which then releases Hydrogen Ions.

  2. Athlete diet plan

    C; RNI 60 mg Breakfast; none Lunch; none Tea; 20mg Total intake; 20mg Difference between RNI and actual intake; 60-20=40mg under RNI Water: RNI; 6-8 pints; Actual intake; 0 pints; 6 pints below minimum RNI Day 5; Breakfast; bran flakes (327 kcals), semi skimmed milk (49 kcals)

  1. Football Coursework Sources Questions

    its cotton industry, this adds to my knowledge that there could be factories in the background. There is also a man with a flag in the picture, with my understanding of the development of rules in 1863; I assume this is the referee.

  2. Talent ID report

    Also it having evidence of a recording alongside being watched means that there is benefit of doubt and evidence of you performing the skills properly, as anyone can have a bad game. It can also ease nerves. Never the less it can also have the opposite affect and create extended pressure on the athlete and make them underperform.

  1. Tennis Personal Performance Portfolio

    � Should have some understanding of basic scoring and rules particularly serving rules. � Expected to have some experience playing the game � Should be able to racket feed single shuttles to the forecourt and rearcourt using an underarm technique to give players reasonable practice opportunities nb.

  2. A competent coach has many qualities and should be able to cater for the ...

    COMPARING COACHES As I have already stated there is quite a difference between the two coaches, in the roles, skills and techniques. As I have already said Adrian was a coach that tried to develop us technically while Jason tried to develop us psychologically.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work