• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Gender, Exercise and Sporting Performance

Extracts from this document...


Task B3 Gender, Exercise and Sporting Performance Males and females rarely compete against each other in a sporting context. Aside from the obvious differences between genders there are a range of physiological differences that mean one gender would have an unfair advantage over the other. Hence the need for single sex competition. Females have some essential differences from males with regard to sports performance and this to some extent explains the differences between the sexes in terms of physical ability. Sociological thinking tends towards an increasing tendency for equality with females taking on more traditional male roles and the differences between the sexes are closing. Body Size The female skeleton is on average smaller and lighter than a male skeleton. Female skeletons have shorter appendicular components which will results in a smaller height and weight when compared to males. These skeletal differences have many implications not all of them disadvantageous. For example smaller lighter and shorter bones are helpful in events such as gymnastics when performances demand balance flexibility and agility. By contrast male gymnastics events make primary use of strength and explosive speed. Body composition One of the main differences between the genders that affect athletic performance is the difference in body composition. Males tend to have greater muscle mass and lower fat mass compared with females. ...read more.


This higher concentration of body fat generates a longer term energy store than can prove beneficial during training. Haemoglobin levels Males have slightly higher concentrations of haemoglobin in their blood than females. In theory therefore, males have increased capacity for oxygen delivery to the working muscles. Maximal oxygen consumption An untrained male will have an average absolute VO2 max of 3.5 litres per minute. An untrained female will have an average absolute VO2 max of 2 litres per minute which is 43 per cent less than a male. The main reason for this difference is that males are usually bigger than females and the difference in body composition between the genders. Females have approximately 10 per cent more body fat than males which will reduce their VO2 max because fat mass hinders performance. Research has shown that a female heart is slightly smaller relative to body size then the male heart. A relatively smaller heart would mean that a female's stroke volume is relatively lower than males. As cardiac output is the product of heart rate multiplied by stroke volume, for a female to maintain a certain cardiac output her heart must be faster then a males. Q= HR X SV Therefore body size and fat percentage, the difference in oxygen carrying capacity of the blood, plus differences in the size of the heart might explain the gender differences in VO2 max. ...read more.


This may have a detrimental effect on aerobic performance so training adaptations or iron supplementation may be required. Recovery Periods Recovery periods are largely dependent on an individual's level of fitness regardless of gender. However females have a tendency to have a slightly lower haemoglobin count than males which may lessen female recovery rates as glycogen levels are topped up (skeletal muscle, liver, kidneys and brain) and any muscle tissue damage is repaired after exercise. Anaerobic capacity Short term high intensity exercises that involve anaerobic power often show a significant difference between the capabilities of both male and female athletes. On the whole male athletes have far greater capacity for anaerobic power. This is due to a number of factors including increased body composition, muscular strength, neuro-muscular factors and of course all these factors use ATP. Aerobic capacity Aerobic capacity is particularly important for endurance athletes and an increased aerobic capacity will eventually lead to an increase in VO2 maximum. Females have lower natural haemoglobin counts, which means the oxygen carrying capabilities of their blood are less than those of males. However, trained females are successful in certain endurance based events. The fact that females carry more fat tissue than males means for trained athletes that there is an additional fuel supply on hand in greater quantities than in males. This will ultimately be of benefit in endurance based events. Word Count 1,423 ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Skeletal and muscular systems

    In the condyloid joint, the ball rests up against the end of a bone rather than inside a socket. Example: The carpals of the wrist rest against the end of the radius bone of the forearm. 3. Saddle The saddle joint allows movement in various directions.

  2. Physiology Within Sport

    * Dilation increases this is where the blood vessels increase within size to cope with the high volume of blood flowing through them. * Increased blood pressure 17. EXPLAIN STARLING'S LAW Starling came up with the theory that, if there is an increase of blood flow through the heart, then

  1. Looking at the skeletal and muscular system and the use of this system during ...

    Follow Through * Follow through with the kicking foot, so as to extend the knee and place all weight on to that leg to keep balance. * Back leg should in a plantarflexion position using the muscle of the tibialis anterior * Arms should remain in the same positions as before using the same muscles.

  2. Identify and justify the key components of fitness.

    Attacking players normally uses it; a defender will not usually try and beat an attacking player when they have the ball in case they get caught out. An example is when you are running down the line and have just one man to beat to get space you will be

  1. Nutrition and Hydration. Energy Intake and Expenditure In Sports Performance

    Fats 30% of 2410 = 723 calories at 9 calories/gram = 723 divided by 9 = 80. Proteins 13% od 2410 = 313 calories at 4 calories/gram = 313 divided by 4 = 78 gramsCarbohydrates - 57% of 2410 = 1374 Calories - at 4 Calories/gram = 1374 � 4

  2. The body's response to exercise- Regular aerobic activity results in a type of cardiac ...

    Vasoconstriction Vessels can also shut down blood flow to tissues, which can temporarily lessen blood supply. This process is known as vasoconstriction and involves a decrease in the diameter of blood vessels by contraction of the involuntary muscle fibres in the vessels walls, resulting in the reduction of blood flow.

  1. Gene doping in sport. Gene Doping is the non-therapeutic use of cells, genes, ...

    This again is the next step in sporting excellence and development. Slide 4 Gene therapy or doping is very new in terms of sporting enhancement therefore there have not been many if any long term side effects established. So far it has been fairly safe in terms of gene therapy

  2. In this assignment I will prepare a report for aimed at young athletes, explaining ...

    Diuretics would help them to lose weight much more quickly than by natural means and they would be able to pass the weigh in. They help the sportsperson lose weight by increasing the volume of urine produced by promoting the excretion of salts and water from the kidney.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work