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How aerobic endurance and strength training create adaptations to the athlete's body and help to improve performance

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Introduction

How aerobic endurance and strength training create adaptations to the athlete's body and help to improve performance. Adaptations due to aerobic endurance training. Endurance training has a very positive effect on the cardiovascular system and an athlete's performance. When an athlete starts to run greater distances more often they will gradually become fitter and because of this changes begin to occur. Exercise firstly affects the cardiovascular system by increasing the athlete's heart rate, therefore increasing the amount of blood that is being pumped around the body. If an athlete did aerobic endurance training every other day for 30 minutes working at 70% of their maximum effort then a number of changes would begin to occur; Cardiac Hypertrophy Occurs: 'Cardiac Hypertrophy is characterised by a larger ventricle wall and a thicker myocardium' (Wesson et al, 2001). Effect on Athlete's Performance: The athlete's heart is able to pump more blood to the working muscles more effectively. Increase in Blood Vessels Veins: The supply of blood vessels to the heart will increase therefore the blood pressure decreases and this improves the functioning of the heart. ...read more.

Middle

This means that the time it takes for the heart to return to its resting rate after exercise is quicker. Effect on Athlete's Performance: The athlete will be able to exercise for longer periods of time as you will not reach your maximum heart rate as you normally would. More blood gets pumped per beat meaning more oxygen gets transported around the body. Faster Venous Return: More blood is able to be pumped back to the heart at a much quicker rate. Effect on Athlete's Performance: The body is able to get rid of the carbon dioxide and other waste products quicker therefore reducing the effects of lactic acid that make the athlete feel fatigue. Cardiovascular Adaptations due to Strength Training Strength training is usually done through weight or resistance training methods. Strength training means that the athlete will be working the anaerobic system. For an athlete to improve their strength, the athlete must work at a percentage of their maximum. If an athlete did strength training every other day frequently cardiovascular adaptations would begin to occur, these are; Increases the size of muscles This occurs because the training ...read more.

Conclusion

Effect on Athlete's performance: The athlete can work for longer as there are more enzymes to keep the production of energy going. Increase in Lactate tolerance An increase in the tolerance for lactic acid means the athlete will not feel the pain which lactic acid can make as early. Effect on Athlete's performance: The athlete will be able to work for longer without feeling the effects of lactic acid. As the athlete exercises more their clearance levels will improve which means the body can get rid of lactic acid without it affecting their performance. The following table demonstrate the effects of training on an athlete: Variable % Performance through training Stored Glycogen 41 Number of mitochondria 103 Size of mitochondria 272 Stored ATP 100 Stored CP 64 Glycolitic Enzymes <60 Aerobic Enzymes 133 Lactate Tolerance 36 Maximum Stroke Volume 50 Maximum Cardiac Output 75 Resting Heart Rate -43 VO2 Max 107 Heart Size 27 % Body Fat -27 (McCardle et al, 1991) This table shows that endurance and strength training help to improve and adapt the above variables and therefore the athletes' body and performance. It is clear to see that both endurance and strength training have a positive affect on the athlete. ...read more.

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