• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Human Evolution

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Enrique Granados Human Evolution Ardipitecus Ramidus This is the oldest hominid found so far, he shows some physical adaptations for the jungle, many theories say that weather changed and predators forced Ardipitecus Ramidus out of the jungle. Ramidus learned friendship in order to protect each other helping to form societies because they were not adapted to live in the plains. He was an herbivore, and his physiology was designed to eat fruits and soft things. He was not design to eat meat. And food is scarce in the plains. He was structurally too slow to convert to a plain's predator. Birth rate began to decline dramatically so birth increases would require major physical changes to adapt for new kinds of food available in the plains. Now living in the plains the children were more exposed to the dangers that never faced in the forest or the jungle. Therefore the women had to spend more time caring their children and the males needed to take more care of the shores than before. Without the protection of the trees, the tribe needed a shelter from weather and predators and the customs had to change for the sake of survival. ...read more.

Middle

there is no solid theory of what caused his extinction. With their stronger culture, they could survive the plains better than the other herd herbivores. Their population grew. Competition was high for food. Other species branched off: Australopithecus aethipicus came first, followed by robustus and boisei. These were bigger and tougher competitors for the same food supply Australopithecus robustus Robustus had almost the same physical features , but a bigger skull without forehead and large brow ridges with a large teeth. He had sagital crests with big jaw muscles attached and a flat face. Some bones have been found and they are supposed to be digging tools Australopithecus boisei The only difference between robustus and boisesi is that boisei had a tougher skull. He is believed to be a variant from the same species of robustus, but never believed as a human antecessor. Homo habilis Homo habilis was the transition man. Starting with a 500cc brain, it grew to a respectable 800cc. Habilis developed from a brutish and dim-witted herd animal to a competent man. The Broca's area in his brain became developed showing the existence of a workable vocabulary. ...read more.

Conclusion

Brain size is smaller than modern humans and bigger than erectus, the skull is more rounded than erectus skull. Many still have large brow ridges and flatter faces than modern humans. Homo sapiens Neanderthalensis Neandertal man existed between 230,000 and 30,000 years ago. His brain size was a little bigger than modern humans (about 1450 cc). His face shows some adaptation to cold as well as his body. They were short and solid, with short limbs. Men averaged about 168 cm (5'6") in height. Their bones are thick and heavy, and show signs of great physical strength. Their skeletons also show the hard lives they endured in cold climates. It is known that they buried their death and to be good hunters. Homo sapiens sapiens (modern) Modern forms of Homo sapiens first appear about 120,000 years ago. Modern humans have an average brain size of about 1350 cc. he developed the first form of art such as music and painting. Physical features are more adapted to actual climate and the skeleton is more agile. Homos sapiens sapiens has body more adapted to run, hence the larger buttocks to balance the body while running and the larger pulmonary capacity with a more efficient cardiovascular system. http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/homs/ Conrad Phillip Kottak. Anthropology. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Physiology Within Sport

    The final result of all of these adaptations increases the maximal oxygen consumption also known as the VO2 max this reduces the fatigue rate and increases the anaerobic threshold. When athletes train at high intensities this increases the hypertrophy of the fast twitch fibres this is because there increasing levels

  2. Anatomy and Physiology.

    Rotation: Rotation is a movement where a bone turns on its longitudinal axis. Twisting the leg so that the foot and knee face outwards or inwards is rotation of the leg on its axis. As mentioned earlier the knee when flexed is capable of slight rotation of the leg.

  1. A level Project, Personal Exercise Program on Netball.

    Footwork |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| || |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| || |||| |||| Successful: 22 Unsuccessful: 8 During the game, the performer made a few footwork mistakes compared to the training data however this could be due to the stress of the competition.

  2. Movement within the Body and the Cardiovascular System

    Isometric training is not very effective alone it needs to be combines with isokinetic Isokinetic This is when the muscle contracts at a constant speed through out the movement, this is different from isometric as isokinetic contraction is usually slower at the start of the movement.

  1. Anatomy of Humans

    first rib up and down n the slightest form. It is placed in the ribs all of them bar the first and in the vertebrae which are flexible but only to an extent with the ribs just in and out with a little up and down.

  2. Human and Social Biology

    The hypothalamus can inhibit the production of prolactin, (lactogenic hormone), within the adenohypophysis by releasing PIF, prolactin inhibiting factor also known as dopamine. After the onset of puberty follicle stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone from the anterior lobe exclusively target the ovaries in women and the testes in men.

  1. The human bodys immune system

    When we are injured blood clots at the injury site, sealing the breach to prevent entry of bacteria. * Biological defense. Normally a vast number of non-pathogenic bacteria live on the skin and mucous membranes. These do not harm the body but they compete with pathogenic bacteria, preventing them from gaining a foothold from which to launch a full-scale infection.

  2. Symptoms and Dangers of Sports-Related Concussions.

    In order to prevent as many concussions as possible, athletes should wear the appropriate equipment, such as a helmet and a mouthpiece. Athletes should also try to strengthen their neck muscles and be honest with examiners when being consulted about concussions (Sport-Related Concussion).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work