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Hydration and Sports Performance. Conditions caused by lack of fluids

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Hydration and Sports Performance Signs and symptoms Water is the most important nutrient, particularly for athletes, this is because water makes up 85% of the body. It is important to keep hydrated before, after and during exercise this is because an athlete can lose up to 1 litre of water per hour during endurance exercise. Therefore re-hydration is essential especially in a hot environment. The symptoms of hydration are: * Thirst * Decreased blood volume * Concentrated urine * Difficulty concentrating * Dizziness * Breathing difficulties * Confusion and poor speech * Muscle spasms * Tingling and numbness of limbs * Renal failure * Death Conditions caused by lack of fluids Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise, lasting a few seconds to several minutes. They can occur after exercise of up to 2 hours and are often the result of fluid loss or inadequate salt intake when sweating heavily. ...read more.


This is good to carry out when in hot climates. Water on its own is not sufficient enough for hyper-hydration as it leads to greater urine output therefore water and glycerol are used to achieve the desired effects. Glycerol helps to get more water into cell fluids, which produces an overall increase in total body fluid. Hyper-hydration is usually carried out for up to a week before completion, especially athletes that are acclimatising to new environments. Athletes take in 400-600ml of water an example of hyper-hydration will be athletes that are travelling to a different country that has higher climate conditions such as competitions as the world cup or Olympic games. Athletes need to hydrate themselves in preparation for competition to ensure they don't become dehydrated. Fluid Intake Preventing dehydration - when preventing dehydration is it important to consider the environment. If you are in a very hot or humid climate, you'll find that your going to lose body fluid at a much faster rate and therefore, will need to be particularly careful to ensure you are taking in enough. ...read more.


Sports Drinks Isotonic - these types of drinks are taken before and during exercise for rapid absorption and to meet fluid and carbohydrate requirements with carbohydrate requirements being 130g. Isotonic drinks are good for endurance activities. Isotonic drinks are good for sports people such a footballers, netballers and rugby players. Hypertonic - these drinks are taken after exercise and they have low levels of water and contain high sugar levels (>8g CHO per 100ml). They begin the hydration process whilst simultaneously helping to replenish carbohydrate energy reserves. Hypertonic drinks are good for athletes that need to replace fluid lose. Hypotonic - these are taken before exercise and have little carbohydrates and are quick to replace fluids (<4g CHO per 100ml). They are best used later in the recovery process to boost energy intake while still encouraging fluid uptake during the final stages of hydration. Long distance runners that will be loosing or have lost a lot of fluids should take on hypotonic drinks. ?? ?? ?? ?? Unit 10 - Sports Nutrition Abbie O'Brien ...read more.

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