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I have chosen to base my PEP on is hockey. Within in hockey there are certain components of fitness that are needed to ensure that the athlete is performing to the best of their ability.

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Introduction

Contents Hockey CV Planning and researching the PEP Aims and Hypothesis Warm Up Cool Down The cardiovascular system Muscles Diet Energy systems Principles of training Training methods Fitness testing Outline of training sessions Training programme Results and graphs Evaluation Hockey C.V Hertfordshire county hockey squad U9s - U11s (captain at U11 for 2 years) Avon county hockey squad U13s - U17s (captain at U15s and U17s) West of England hockey squad U15s - U17s. England Hockey trials for U16s and U18s. Planning and researching I have chosen to base my PEP on is hockey. Within in hockey there are certain components of fitness that are needed to ensure that the athlete is performing to the best of their ability. The different components of fitness are: Strength - the extent to which muscles can exert force by contracting against resistance (e.g. holding or restraining an object or person) Power - the ability to exert maximum muscular contraction instantly in an explosive burst of movements. The two components of power are strength and speed. (e.g. jumping or a sprint start) Agility - the ability to perform a series of explosive power movements in rapid succession in opposing directions (e.g. ZigZag running or cutting movements) Balance - the ability to control the body's position, either stationary (e.g. a handstand) or while moving (e.g. a gymnastics stunt) Flexibility - the ability to achieve an extended range of motion without being impeded by excess tissue, i.e. fat or muscle (e.g. executing a leg split) Local Muscle Endurance - a single muscle's ability to perform sustained work (e.g. rowing or cycling) Cardiovascular Endurance - the heart's ability to deliver blood to working muscles and their ability to use it (e.g. running long distances) Strength Endurance - a muscle's ability to perform a maximum contraction time after time (e.g. continuous explosive rebounding through an entire basketball game) Co-ordination- the ability to integrate the above listed components so that effective movements are achieved. ...read more.

Middle

I will ensure that I have a constant supply of glycogen by eating the right foods that supply it. There are 7 important nutrients that I will need to include in my diet: Carbohydrate Proteins Fibre Fats Minerals and vitamins Water (Carbohydrates are the most important component of my diet so will explain more here. For information on the others see appendix 1.) Carbohydrates There are two types of carbohydrates; simple sugars such as sugar which is found in most foods such as fruits, jam, biscuits and cakes, and complex sugars known as starch, which is commonly found in food such as vegetables, rice, bread, cereals, potatoes and pasta. Carbohydrates supply a vital source of energy for the body. The body stores carbohydrates as glycogen in the muscles mainly and in the liver. When this fuel is needed for energy, the body then converts the glycogen to glucose via glycolsis so that the body is then able to use the glucose for energy. As I am aiming to improve my endurance I will have a high level of carbohydrates in my diet as I need a high level of glycogen to ensure I have a constant supply of energy. However as I am constantly exercising rather than training for a specific even I will not need to carbo-load as it will be more beneficial to me if I have a constant supply of carbohydrates. Appendix 1 Proteins Proteins are mostly found in red meat, eggs, nuts and pulses. We need protein to help build and repair damaged muscles. Protein builds and repair muscles and tissues either from injury or adaptations from exercise. In extreme cases protein can supply the body when all the glycogen stores have been used up. During exercise protein supplies less than 5% of the energy the body uses, but this can increase to 10% when the glycogen stores are empty. Too much protein in the body can cause dehydration and muscles heaviness, which can be a problem for an athlete. ...read more.

Conclusion

General training prepares athletes for specific training. The greater the volume of general training, the greater the capacity is for specific training. Principle of Individualism Athletes respond in their own individual way to fitness activities. Athletes bring their unique talents, capabilities, capacities and responses to training. Heredity determines many physiological factors such as heart and lung size, characteristics of muscle fiber, physique and balance. The amount of rest and sleep as well as responses to the environment (heat/cold, pollution, stress and altitude) vary from one athlete to another. Nutrition and past or current illness or injury will also have an influence on ability to perform. The body's physiological readiness for training is another important factor. Athletes at the same chronological age can be at very different levels of maturity, and up to four years apart in their developmental and biological ages. In addition, training age, the length of time an athlete has been training, must also be considered. Athletes - Same Chronological Age - Different Training Capacities Chronological Age Biological Age Training Age 11 9 1 11 13 3 Athletes - Same Chronological Age - Similar Training Capacities Chronological Age Biological Age Training Age 12 13 2 15 13 2 (http://www.specialolympics.org/Special+Olympics+Public+Website/English/Coach/Coaching_Guides/Nutrition+Safety+and+Fitness/Principles+of+Training.htm) Principle of Variety Training is a long-term process and loading and recovery can become boring. Plan variety into your athlete's training program. Build in cross-training workouts and add pool workouts to the program. Be creative. Variation is an alternation of stress and is a necessary part of an athlete's progression. A weekly and monthly schedule should contain alternating periods of hard and easy work. Work should alternate with periods of rest to allow the body to adapt to the changes that have occurred. Principle of Active Involvement Perhaps the most important principle, active involvement, requires the athlete wanting to actively and willingly participate in their training program. Improvement in overall fitness requires long-term commitment by the coach and especially the athlete. This requires that all aspects of an athlete's life contribute to the success of his/her performance on the field of play. ?? ?? ?? ?? Chris James Pep ...read more.

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