• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

I will be researching the two skeleton structures and the bones which they contain. The different categories of bone articulation and all about the joints in the body

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

During this assignment I will be researching the two skeleton structures and the bones which they contain. The different categories of bone articulation and all about the joints in the body. I will also be looking into joint and bone homeostatic imbalances which a world class female gymnast is likely to suffer from at some point in her life. The skeleton is split into two structures, the Axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. Axial skeleton: The Axial skeleton supports the main part of the body and protects the vital organs. There are many different bones; the main ones in the Axial skeleton include: * Cranium, facial bones and mandible. * Vertebral column, lumbar vertebrae. * Ribs * Sternum * Atlas Appendicular skeleton: The Appedicular skeleton supports the limbs and attaches them to the rest of the body. The main bones in the Appedicular skeleton include: * Humorous, radius, ulna. * Planges, meta-carples, carples, Meta tarsels, tarsels. * Femur, patella, tibia, fibula. * Clavicle, scapula, pelvic girdle There are five different categories of bones which are designed to carry out a variety of specific functions. Long bones-cylindrical in shape and found in the limbs of the body, eg femur, tibia, humerous, phalanges (not long but cylindrical). Short bones- small and compact in nature, often equal in length and width. Designed for strength and weight bearing, e.g. carpels, tarsels, and calcaneum. Flat bones- offer protection to the internal organs, e.g. ...read more.

Middle

Shoulder & hip extension- limb moves backward of the body. Plantar flexion- toes pointing down, angle of the joint increased. Dorsi flexion- toes pointing up, angle of the joint is decreased. Hyperextension- the angle of the joint is more than 180 degrees, i.e. bending backwards. Abduction- movement away from the midline of the body. Adduction- movement towards the midline of the body. Circumduction- a circular pattern, the limb moves in a curcular manor ad includes flexion, extension, abduction and adduction. (Task 3) A world class gymnast who competes and trains regularly is likely to suffer from both joint and bone homeostatic imbalances at some point in their life. One example of a bone homeostatic imbalance is Osteoporosis. This is a disorder characterised by decreased bone mass, owing to loss of bone mineral, and increase susceptibility to fractures. A gymnast may be susceptible to Osteoporosis as she has smaller bones and has less adipose tissue, which is a great source of estrogen. Estrogen is a female hormone, which protects against bone mineral loss during young adulthood. Also adipose tissue is a good source of Estrone. There are causes which can lead to Osteoporosis. Dieting can lead to a decreased bone mineral content as the body draws calcium from bone to make up for the calcium missing from the diet. Excess protein can lead to loss of bone mineral as doubling protein intake in diets increases urinary calcium excretion by 50%. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is probably largely because it reduces the amount you can use your elbow." (Yahoo.com 2000) Diagram of Elbow Joint Another example of a joint homeostatic imbalance is 'Meniscal Damage' which is an injury to the knee. The two menisci are often called 'cartilage's' since they consist of fibro-cartilage. They are commonly damaged during sporting activities. Treatment for ligamentous weakness is for it to be removed or later osteoarthritis may develop. Cause of Meniscal Damage- "A menisci is torn by a rotating force carried out when the joint is partially flexed. This rotating force 'sucks' the meniscus concerned towards the centre of the joint when it I crushed between the extending tibia and femur." (David S. Muckle 1977) "If a portion of cartilage becomes caught in the inter-condylar notch then locking follows." (David S. Muckle 1977) "Vigorous internal rotation of the femur on the tibia with the knee flexed and weight bearing traps an excessively mobile medial meniscus, and extension tears it." (David S. Muckle 1977) After this happens the knee may lock, sometimes an effusion with snapping or locking may be the sole complaint. The knee may give way and tenderness around the joint may be detected. To treat this for the first locking episode - rest, traction and physiotherapy is needed for about 2-3 weeks. If the damage is recurrent then surgical excision may be needed, as tears of the body never heal. The athlete can return to sports activity in 6-8 weeks. If they have postoperative rest for 10 days with static exercises, then physiotherapy. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Physiology Within Sport

    DESCRIBE HOW THE BODY RECOVERS FROM EXERCISE After any individual exercises their body has to recover and return to what's known as the pre-exercise state, when the body undergoes an oxygen debt or "Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption", this occurs when there have been parts of the exercise which do

  2. The Axial and Appendicular Skeletons.

    Adduction - this is the opposite of abduction and concerns movement towards the midline of the body or body part. Adduction occurs in the frontal plane about an anterior-posterior axis.

  1. Free essay

    functions of the skeleton

    This is to stop any bangs injuries to the head damaging the brain. Also the skeleton protects organs like the heart by providing a rib cage this is to make sure the vital living organs don't get damaged in collisions.

  2. Skeletal System and Joints

    The thumb joint consists of; the first metacarpal, the carpals and the radius; muscles; hand flexors, extensors, adductors and abductors. Ball and Socket joints; The shoulder joint is a good example of a Ball and Socket joint. The shoulder joint consists of; bones; the humorous, clavicle, scapular; muscles; supraspinatus, infraspinatus

  1. A level Project, Personal Exercise Program on Netball.

    Relaxation and stress reduction exercises techniques such as focusing and meditation, grounding techniques, exercises that help you to relax and release muscle tension, erasure techniques (how to erase old programs), healing the inner child, visualizations, and affirmations. (2) 5 Muscle tension.

  2. Movement within the Body and the Cardiovascular System

    the hips, the muscles will only gain strength at that 450 angle. Strenuous isometric activity should not be undertaken if you have heart problems as the blood pressure rises due to the blood flow going back to the heart instead of to the muscle, which you are training.

  1. A.S Personal exercise program for netball

    Place free weights back on the rack and make sure the weighted machines are left in the right position and that the pins are kept with the machine. Certain training methods require the use of different equipment and weights, make sure they are all safe to use and that they are used correctly.

  2. The effects of Rheumatoid Arthritis on joints.

    Hydrotherapy is exercise undertaken in a hot swimming pool. The water has the effect of making you weightless, thus taking all pressure off your joints whilst you exercise and allowing you to put your joints through their full movement range without any damage and with minimum pain.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work