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I will be researching the two skeleton structures and the bones which they contain. The different categories of bone articulation and all about the joints in the body

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During this assignment I will be researching the two skeleton structures and the bones which they contain. The different categories of bone articulation and all about the joints in the body. I will also be looking into joint and bone homeostatic imbalances which a world class female gymnast is likely to suffer from at some point in her life. The skeleton is split into two structures, the Axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. Axial skeleton: The Axial skeleton supports the main part of the body and protects the vital organs. There are many different bones; the main ones in the Axial skeleton include: * Cranium, facial bones and mandible. * Vertebral column, lumbar vertebrae. * Ribs * Sternum * Atlas Appendicular skeleton: The Appedicular skeleton supports the limbs and attaches them to the rest of the body. The main bones in the Appedicular skeleton include: * Humorous, radius, ulna. * Planges, meta-carples, carples, Meta tarsels, tarsels. * Femur, patella, tibia, fibula. * Clavicle, scapula, pelvic girdle There are five different categories of bones which are designed to carry out a variety of specific functions. Long bones-cylindrical in shape and found in the limbs of the body, eg femur, tibia, humerous, phalanges (not long but cylindrical). Short bones- small and compact in nature, often equal in length and width. Designed for strength and weight bearing, e.g. carpels, tarsels, and calcaneum. Flat bones- offer protection to the internal organs, e.g. ...read more.


Shoulder & hip extension- limb moves backward of the body. Plantar flexion- toes pointing down, angle of the joint increased. Dorsi flexion- toes pointing up, angle of the joint is decreased. Hyperextension- the angle of the joint is more than 180 degrees, i.e. bending backwards. Abduction- movement away from the midline of the body. Adduction- movement towards the midline of the body. Circumduction- a circular pattern, the limb moves in a curcular manor ad includes flexion, extension, abduction and adduction. (Task 3) A world class gymnast who competes and trains regularly is likely to suffer from both joint and bone homeostatic imbalances at some point in their life. One example of a bone homeostatic imbalance is Osteoporosis. This is a disorder characterised by decreased bone mass, owing to loss of bone mineral, and increase susceptibility to fractures. A gymnast may be susceptible to Osteoporosis as she has smaller bones and has less adipose tissue, which is a great source of estrogen. Estrogen is a female hormone, which protects against bone mineral loss during young adulthood. Also adipose tissue is a good source of Estrone. There are causes which can lead to Osteoporosis. Dieting can lead to a decreased bone mineral content as the body draws calcium from bone to make up for the calcium missing from the diet. Excess protein can lead to loss of bone mineral as doubling protein intake in diets increases urinary calcium excretion by 50%. ...read more.


This is probably largely because it reduces the amount you can use your elbow." (Yahoo.com 2000) Diagram of Elbow Joint Another example of a joint homeostatic imbalance is 'Meniscal Damage' which is an injury to the knee. The two menisci are often called 'cartilage's' since they consist of fibro-cartilage. They are commonly damaged during sporting activities. Treatment for ligamentous weakness is for it to be removed or later osteoarthritis may develop. Cause of Meniscal Damage- "A menisci is torn by a rotating force carried out when the joint is partially flexed. This rotating force 'sucks' the meniscus concerned towards the centre of the joint when it I crushed between the extending tibia and femur." (David S. Muckle 1977) "If a portion of cartilage becomes caught in the inter-condylar notch then locking follows." (David S. Muckle 1977) "Vigorous internal rotation of the femur on the tibia with the knee flexed and weight bearing traps an excessively mobile medial meniscus, and extension tears it." (David S. Muckle 1977) After this happens the knee may lock, sometimes an effusion with snapping or locking may be the sole complaint. The knee may give way and tenderness around the joint may be detected. To treat this for the first locking episode - rest, traction and physiotherapy is needed for about 2-3 weeks. If the damage is recurrent then surgical excision may be needed, as tears of the body never heal. The athlete can return to sports activity in 6-8 weeks. If they have postoperative rest for 10 days with static exercises, then physiotherapy. ...read more.

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