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Information on the Physiology of Exercise

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Unit 7 Information on the Physiology of Exercise Faraz Ijaz The Skeletal System The human skeletal system has four main features, these are: * Protection * Support * Movement and attachment * Blood Protection There are two main parts of the skeletal system. The axial skeleton; which consists of the skull, vertebral column, ribs and sternum, and the appendicular skeleton; which consists of the arms, shoulder griddle, legs and hip griddle. The main function of the axial skeleton is to support the body, to allow it to stand and to maintain a form. The main function of the appendicular skeleton is to allow for movement of the limbs. These two sections of the skeleton combined make the body able to stand and to move. The skeleton now serves two more functions related to sport, to protect vital organs and to produce blood. Protection For protection we rely on our skeleton, because this is hard. Our bones are made up of water, collagen, calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate and fluoride salts. The calcium in our bones helps to strengthen the bones, such as the ribs. The ribs are made up of hard bone that is not meant to flex, however it expands to allow for the lungs to inflate and deflate. They provide support and protection to vital organs such as the heart and lungs. Our skull is meant to protect the brain, eyes and ears, the cranium only protects unlike the ribs, which support and protect vital organs. The skull is made up of hard bones; joints join these bones with fibrous joints, these are non-moveable joints, and so do not allow for any type of movement. The skull in effect is a shell to protect our brain, eyes and ears. Support As I have explained above the skeleton is divided into two parts the axial and appendicular skeletal system. The axial system provides the support it needs to stand up, hence the word axial, coming from the word axis. ...read more.


Aerobic Exercise = Glucose + Oxygen => Energy + Carbon Dioxide + Water Carbon Dioxide and Water is the waste product from aerobic exercise as seen from this equation. Diet and Nutrition I have explained above how the body has two systems of producing energy; the aerobic and anaerobic, these systems work as a secondary source of energy, as the primary source of energy is food; solids that we eat. Food that is consumed can be broken down into different categories. Each category serves a different purpose in the running of an efficient body. An example of this can be carrots; this is good for the eyes, carrots contain beta-carotene. The food groups are: * Carbohydrates * Fats * Proteins * Vitamins * Minerals Though water is not a nutrient it is essential for the efficiency of the bodily functions, as this provides the body with moisture. Most food can be broken into four main groups: * Bread, cereals and potatoes * Fruit and vegetables * Milk and dairy products * Meat and fish Fatty foods and sugary foods is a small but relevant group, this can be referred to as the 'extras' food group. No single food has in it all of the above nutrients in one as of yet. It is essential to have a balanced diet as all of the above nutrient have different purposes to serve around the body and are required for the correct and efficient running of the body. Energy is required for all bodily functions, as I have explained above, energy that is required for basic activities such as keeping the heart beating and the lungs breathing is called the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR). This is usually derived from the food that we eat; occasionally this is taken from the body's store of fats. This is why food should reflect the nutrients that are used during activities. ...read more.


This is a hormonal release carried out by the brain to prepare for exercise. As the blood flow has been increased the gaseous exchange must be increased for this to be equalised the brain tells the respiratory system to breath heavier and faster. Blood flow to un-needed parts of the body such as the gut will be cut off and concentrated to moving parts such as the legs. As the body is working and muscle temperature is rising the brain will tell the blood vessel to the skins to dilate and expel excess heat by radiation. If the exercise is severe, vessels can become constricted and in turn causing overheating and lead to muscle fatigue. Below is an example of this: The effects of constant exercise As I have shown above the bodies actions during exercise. If a person does these exercises on a regular basis than their body adapts to this. This would make their bodies fitter and be able to withstand more exercise than an average person. Here is a list of the different possibilities of change that a human body can undergo whilst doing a certain type of activity on a regular basis: Swimming A swimmer needs to be able to hold more oxygen in the lungs and so the lungs would become able to breathe deeper and hold air in longer. So this will be visible as they will have wider and larger chests, to accommodate the larger lungs. Football A footballer runs on their legs for stretches of 90 minutes, so their legs will have formed good muscles working antagonistically. Tennis Tennis player use their shoulders to swing when hitting the ball, their muscles would also have formed well to work antagonistically. Combined In all cases the blood pressure is affected, when doing exercise the blood pressure rises a person who does not do regular exercise will have a higher blood pressure after their exercise session, whereas a person doing regular exercise will have a lower blood pressure. Faraz Ijaz Leisure & Recreation Unit 7 ...read more.

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