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Information Processing.

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Introduction

Introduction I have been asked to explain how an information-processing model can explain the production of skilled performance. This will include information about sensory input, perception, short term memory, decision making, effector control, effectors, feedback and application to a specific sport. I have also been asked to examine and discuss the different methods teachers and coaches can use to enable them to teach new skills with maximum effectiveness. The information processing model starts off with sensory input, weather it is to catch a ball or to perform a gymnastic movement we always use our senses to locate ourselves in a suitable position and decide on the requirements f the task. Our main sensory input systems we use in physical activity are vision, hearing and propriorception. The body from the information passed through the nervous system can then produce the skill which is, the brain and the spinal cord, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system, which comprises the nerves that connect the spinal cord with all the parts of the body. Vision and hearing (audition). This allows us to see the image through visual perception for example to see where to position yourself to catch a ball. ...read more.

Middle

He will detect everything around him but will only concentrate on the other players moves, and the position of the ball. If the other player has performed a particular move the brain will compare this with similar codes that have been stored in the memory then will it is matched it is recognised. Certain things that happen in the game will only be stored in the short-term memory that could just be a few seconds, but skills which have been practised and concentrated on will be stored in the long-term memory, like the skill to serve. Throughout the game tennis the player has to make many decisions, what way to run to hit the ball, which way to hit the ball etc. in order to have a successful game the players reaction time must be very short. The feedback to the player can be from him or herself, their coach, the press if it has been recorded for television or even the opponent. There are many different styles of teaching although different ways like 'trial and error' and 'learning by experience' can also be an effective way. There is known to be four elements of the teaching process. These are, instructing, demonstrating, applying, and confirming. Instructing is telling the learner what to do and how to do it. ...read more.

Conclusion

Videos are also included and are said to be most beneficial as it can be played back in slow motion. As well as demonstration videos can be used to provide feedback from the learners performance. Modifying the display is basically enhancing aspects of the surroundings, e.g. the colour of the tennis ball, marks on a court, chalk on a gymnastic mat and coloured bibs of team players. Verbal guidance is used very much in teaching to set the task clearly and to describe the actions he/she is able to highlight the important performance cues. This method is very useful when used by a knowledgeable teacher, as it has to be clear and understandable. It is also important that it is easy for the learner to remember. Manual or mechanical guidance involves physical contact, by the coach or pieces of equipment e.g. coach supporting the gymnast through a movement, swimming armband or tight rope. These are all to reduce error and fear and for safety. These are separated into two forms. Physical restriction- where a person or object restricts the performer from movements in a safe way, e.g. trampoline belt. Forced response- the performer is guided through a movement, e.g. the coach may physically guide the player through a forehand drive in tennis. Aquisision of Skill Carleen Mennie ...read more.

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