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Investigate the psychology of group dynamics in sport and exercise.

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Introduction

Psychology Investigate the psychology of group dynamics in sport and exercise Task 1 Trait leadership theory: this theory states that leaders are born and not made and that they will be able to perform in any situation. It was created in the 19th century and is also known as the great man theory. Calling it the great man theory can be seen as sexist as there have been many great female leaders some examples of these are Queen Boudicea and Margaret Thatcher. Both of these females were able to take control and be a leader so by calling it a great man theory you are suggesting that only males can become good leaders. Contingency leadership theory: this is more modern than trait theory and also disagrees with it. It suggests that no one is born to lead and that the situation that you are in and the characteristics of the group will dictate how good a leader the person will become. This means that someone can be turned into a good leader over time. ...read more.

Middle

A group goes through five stages these are: Form- the point at which the group will first come together e.g. a new class at the beginning of term. Storm- this is where there are arguments and debates between the people who want to become leaders of the group. Norm- this is where the group find out how they should act and behave around each other and also the way in which they dress. E.g. in our BTEC class if someone came in wearing gothic make up and all black clothes they would be made fun. The rules are generally known by each member of the group and are not normally broken. Perform- this is where the group performs the task that they were meant to do. E.g. a team playing the sport. Mourn- the final part of the group is where it has to split up and go its separate ways. E.g. our BTEC group splitting up at the end of the year as we will have completed what we set out to achieve. ...read more.

Conclusion

Another example of people not getting on is the German rowing team of 1968, out of the 8 people in it none of them could stand each other and would only talk when training and would not spend any time with each other outside of the sport. However some of the drawbacks of people not getting on with each other were that they could play hospital passes and try and get the players injured. It could also dent team morale if they see players arguing and not getting on with each other. Social Facilitation This is where there is a change of performance when other people are in your presence. Zajonc (1965) defined the different types of people present, he separated them into different sections, those that are competing and those that are there but not competing. He made a model of how it worked. His model is shown below. This diagram shows that an audience can affect a person's performance either in a positive or negative way. E.g. amateurs are more likely to panic in front of a crowd whereas a professional will stay calm and play the same type of game that they would have without a crowd. 1 ...read more.

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