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Investigating Muscle Contraction

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Introduction

Investigating Muscle Contraction Purpose: To investigate how different solutions influence the muscle contractions on muscle fibers of chicken. Hypothesis: I think that when water is added there will be little expansion in the muscle, when glucose is added little contraction and when ATP is added the most contraction. I think this because muscle contraction is related to the amount of energy the muscle receives. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is a product of glucose respiration. It is a high-energy bond and has a very short halftime of half a second. Muscle expansion is in one way related with the amount of water the muscle receives because the cells absorb the water and therefore expand. Variables: Independent variable: Water, Glucose, ATP (adenosine triphosphate) Dependent variable : Change in length of chicken muscle fiber Controlled variable : Temperature, Same source of chicken, same age of chicken, same circumstances, same treatment of chicken Uncontrolled variable: Length and width of Chicken muscle fiber Materials: * Muscle fibers * Millimeter graph paper * 3 glass slides * 3 droppers * Distilled water * Glucose solution * ATP solution * Stop clock * Blunt mounted needles * Petri dish Method: 1. ...read more.

Middle

19.5 18 0 2.5 7.69 4 36 36 35 32 0 2.78 8.57 5 40 40 39 36 0 2.5 7.69 6 36 36 33 34 0 8.33 -3.03 7 22 22 21 18 0 4.55 14.29 8 20 20 19 18 0 5 5.26 9 46 46 45 19 0 2.17 5 10 32 32 32 32 0 0 0 11 25 25 25 23 0 0 8 12 15 15 14 11 0 6.67 21.43 Mean 32.16666667 32.166667 14 27 0 3.56916667 7.526666667 The figures above are not 100% accurate. This is because eyes of human beings are not 100% accurate. Therefore a scope of 0.5mm has to be taken into account when looking at the figures. Conclusion and Evaluation: The investigation was carried out successfully. We had varied results in the class, but they were not very far off from each other in most cases. My hypothesis was correct for the chicken muscle fiber. Looking at the average figures for the test carried out it is seen that when water was added there was a slight expansion in one case of the chicken, when glucose was added, there was a small contraction as suspected in the chicken muscle. ...read more.

Conclusion

Thirdly when using litmus paper to absorb the added solution, this procedure sometimes this was done very carefully, leaving more solution on some tests and less on others. This could cause certain changes in the results as some tests had more solution on the than others. Finally, because the eye is not 100% correct, and because the graph paper is not 100% accurate, when looking at the fibres to check for changes; mistakes could have been made in noting these changes. The litmus paper could be used in a more efficient way, if I placed it on the muscle fibre for the same amount of time on each test. In addition to this I could have used more accurate graph paper to give more accurate results. Also the chicken that we used was probably killed since a few days. Many cells could have died in these few days, and so become less reactive to the solutions that were added. If the chicken was fresher, say just cut the same day; I think I would have more accurate results because the cells would react faster to the solutions. The pieces cut out of the chicken could have more accurate by using a computer controlled cutting machine. Robinson Wollersheim 02/02/2003 - 2 - ...read more.

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