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Movement within the Body and the Cardiovascular System

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Introduction

Anatomy; Movement within the Body and the Cardiovascular System Task One; Movement within the Body Action Movement Agonist muscles Origin Insertion Antagonist Origin Insertion Contraction Leg extension (at knee) Lift phase Extension at the knee Quadriceps Group Anterior Inferior iliac Spine (pelvis) Anterior Superior Tibia Gracillis Posterior Superior Fibula Posterior inferior pelvis Quadriceps Group; concentric Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Anterior superior femur Vastus medialis Vastus intermedius. Leg Extension (at knee) Release phase Flexion at the knee Gracillis Posterior Superior Fibula Posterior inferior pelvis Quadriceps Group Anterior Inferior iliac Spine (pelvis) Anterior Superior Tibia Quadriceps Group; eccentric Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Vastus intermedius Action Movement Agonist muscles Origin Insertion Antagonist Origin Insertion Contraction Upper cut (boxing) Punch Phase Flexion at the elbow Biceps Brachii Long head -Coracoid process and short head -supraglenoid tubercle Long head- superior anterior radius Short head - superior anterior ulna Triceps Brachii Infraglenoid tubercle and superior posterior humerus Olecranon (superior ulna) Agonists; Concentric Antagonists; Eccentric Flexion at the shoulder Anterior Deltoid Acromion- clavicle Superior anterior humerus Posterior Deltoid Spine of scapula Superior posterior humerus Agonists; Concentric Antagonists; Eccentric Pectorals Major Clavicle Superior anterior humerus Latissimus Dorsi Superior anterior humerus Spine- thoracic 6 to sacrum 5 Biceps brachii Long head -Coracoid process and short head -supraglenoid tubercle Long head- superior anterior radius Short head - superior anterior ulna Teres major Scapula Humerus Coracobrachialis Coracoid process Superior anterior humerus Triceps brachii Infraglenoid tubercle and superior posterior humerus Olecranon (superior ulna) Action Movement Agonist muscles Origin Insertion Antagonist Origin Insertion Contraction Upper cut (boxing) recovery phase Extension at the shoulder Posterior Deltoid Spine of scapula Superior posterior humerus Anterior Deltoid Acromion- clavicle Superior anterior humerus Agonists; Concentric Antagonists; Eccentric Latissimus Dorsi Superior anterior humerus Spine- thoracic 6 to sacrum 5 Pectorals Major Clavicle Superior anterior humerus Teres Major Scapula Humerus Biceps brachii Long head -Coracoid process and short head -supraglenoid tubercle Long head- superior anterior radius Short head - superior anterior ulna Triceps Brachii Infraglenoid tubercle and superior posterior humerus Olecranon (superior ulna) ...read more.

Middle

It opens to create pressure for the superior part of the valve so that blood can flow into the left ventricle during the left atria systole; the then closes after the left atria systole to prevent any back flow Tricuspid Valve Stops any backflow from the right atrium to the right ventricle. Have three leaflets and papillary muscles. Papillary Muscles. These restrict the movements of the bicuspid and tricuspid valves; they contract to tightness them which prevent inversion. This occurs when the pressure changes. They aid the valves to prevent backflow flow to ventricles into the atriums. Cardiac Muscle Cardiac muscle is found in the heart. It is the wall of the heart. When you observe it through a microscope it has a striped appearance. The heart is constantly contracting then relaxing momentarily. If the heart stopped contracting the person would die. On average an adult's heart beats approximately 70 times a minute pumping around 5 litres of blood in that minute. Cardiac muscles have some unique features not shared by other muscles. * Cardiac muscles Don't fatigue * Cardiac muscles contract in a 'synchronous wave's' because cells are interconnected, which will be explained further on. * They are 'myogenic'; cardiac muscles generate their own nervous impulses. The 'Synchronous Wave's' of the Heart For the heart to beat properly the cardiac muscles need to produce a wave like contraction in order for the atria to contract before the ventricles, it is vital for the blood to flow downwards from the atria to the ventricles then upwards out of the aorta and pulmonary artery. Sinuatrial Node A specialised node called the sinuatrial node (SA node) (SAN) starts this 'synchronous wave' found in the wall of the right atrium. The nerve impulse makes its way through the cardiac tissues from the SA node, as all the muscle fibres are inter-connected; this causes the atria to contract, and pushes the blood to the ventricles. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is the IRV + TV + ERV + RV. As it is the complete totally capacity of air that the lung may hold with in it. It is usually around 6 litres of air. The TLC is affected by and determined by, * Regular mental functioning, the capability of the individual to inspire fully. * Regular elasticity of the thorax, (abnormalities can be caused by kyphosis for example) * Regular elasticity of the lungs (aging can effect this) * Regular thoracic content (e.g. a lobectomy) Vital Capacity (VC) This is the amount of air that it is possible to forces from the lungs immediately after a maximal inspiration (breathing in as much as possible). It is essentially the most air that can be in and out of the lungs, this is usually around 4.8 litres. Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) This is the maximum amount of air flowing during respiration, as we maximally force the air after a maximal inspiration. This can be made notably greater by immediately forcing the air out of the lungs after a maximal inspiration. Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1) FEV1 is the volume of air exhaled during the first second of a forced expiration; this must be started from the level the TLC to be accurate. Functional Residual Volume (FRV) The FRV is equal to the ERV + RV. It is the volume of gas remaining in the lung after a normal expiration; it is essentially determined by the individual's elastic recoil of the chest and lungs. FRV can also be termed the functional residual capacity (FRC). Reference sheet; Images (in order of appearance); Page 1; www.livewellnow.com/image/muscular-system.jpg Page 7; BTEC National Diploma in Sport and Exercise Science 2003 page 185 figure 7.30 Page 8; www.wikipedia.org/neuromusclar+junction/ Page 11; www.slrctsurgery.com/image/taa_image02.jpg Page 13; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Anatomy_artery.png" \o "Anatomy of the arterial wall Page 14; http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/class/bio590/pictures/lect5/artery-vein.jpeg Page 15; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Heme.svg Page 17; Microsoft Encarta Encyclopaedia, Microsoft Corporation 2003 Page 17; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Illu_conducting_passages.jpg Page 18; Microsoft Encarta Encyclopaedia, Microsoft Corporation 2003 Page 20; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:LungVolume.jpg ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 1 Christopher Carter, Unit Seven Anatomy For Sports and Exercise Science, Movement within the body and the cardiovascular system. ...read more.

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