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Muscles and Joints.

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Introduction

The Muscles and Joints Of the Body have about 650 Muscles and Joints in the body. Our skeleton is made up of 206 bones. There are many different type of bones like long, short, irregular and flat bones also hard bones. The bones are here to get you to stand up straight and walk . Joints and Movements Your joints are where the bones are meet. There are three parts to this. A) The fixed joint, which cannot move. B) The partly moveable Joint that can move about in certain criteria. C) The freely moveable joints that can move in any direction. Here are some kinds of joints. * The saddle Joint allows movement into two directions just like the thumb. * The Pivot joint is a special joint that has a ring, which fits into axis vertebra. This joint allows rotation of about 1800. An example of this joint is the top of the neck to the head. * The ball and socket joint is the most movable joint. It comprises of a ball that fits into a socket. The hip joint is a good example. The disadvantage to this joint is that the movement is limited. * The gliding joint can be found in the spine. Small sliding movements to take place. The joints are nearly flat . * The condyloid joint is a joint found on the wrist . This joint also allows movement back and forward and side-to-side. The radius and the ulna have ends, which are hollow and can fit into bones of the wrist. ...read more.

Middle

The two kinds of muscle fibers are: intramural muscle fibers and extrafusal muscle fibers. Extra fusil fibers are the ones that contain myofibrils and are what is usually meant when we talk about muscle fibers. Intramural fibers are also called muscle spindles and lie parallel to the extrafusal fibers. The Muscle spindles, or stretch receptors are known as the primary proprioceptors in the muscle. There are other proprioceptor that comes into play during stretching and is located in the tendon near the end of the muscle fibre and is called the Golgi tendon organ. There is a third type of proprioceptor, called a pacinian corpuscle, is located close to the golgi tendon organ and is responsible for detecting changes in movement and pressure within the body. When the extrafusal fibers of a muscle lengthen, so do the intrafusal fibers (muscle spindles). The muscle spindle contains two different types of fibers (or stretch receptors) which are sensitive to the change in muscle length and the rate of change in muscle length. When muscles contract it places tension on the tendons where the Golgi tendon organ is located. The Golgi tendon organ is sensitive to the change in tension and the rate of change of the tension The exercise sequence Preparation Before the exercise we would firstly stretch. This so that muscles do not come out of place and that you don't pull them. If this happens then you can't carry on with the exercise. The bones joint together with the muscles are known as musculoskeletal system. This musculoskeletal system needs the muscle to be attached to the system other wise it will tear. ...read more.

Conclusion

Force = Mass X acceleration You can see in this sequence that mass is 30 kg on two sides the acceleration is going to be very little change but the force need would be big. From these the Change is evident. The muscles are being contracted more. The fibres are in the muscles are being pulled more in the top right of the picture. The bottom picture shows the triceps and bicep along with the extensor Being used heavily. You also have Speed = Distance x Time. This is not really a factor but can be measured just like all the others. Energy could be worked out so that you can say whether the person can improve by using up less energy. Velocity =total displacements/time taken Acceleration = Change in velocity / Time Taken Momentum= mass x velocity KE= 1/2 Mass x Velocity 2 GPE= mass x gravitational filed strength x change in height If you look at the exercise sequence you can see the muscles used and how safely he is taking part in the exercise. The muscle are well toned .You can really see much picture of the arm on its own but that was because we did not make the stills our teachers when and converted the stills for us. The back is well toned as well. You can't see the knee in the image but when he was doing exercise I saw he kept the knees bent. A major Error was the fact the performers did not warm up enough. We did not have a close up shot and the stages were not that good. They should have known better because they were professional trainers. ...read more.

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