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Muscles in the Human Body

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´╗┐Muscular System Jessica WILLIAMSON ________________ The muscle tissue has four main properties; Excitability, Contractibility, Extensibility and Elasticity. Excitability; The ability to respond to stimuli. Contractibility; The ability to contract. Extensibility; The ability to stretch without causing a tear. Elasticity; The ability to be able to return to normal shape. While contraction is taking place the muscular system performs 3 functions; Motion, Heat Production and Maintenance of posture. Motion; The ability of being able to move e.g. walking or running. However, with motion you must know about levers. The framework of the body is covered in muscle which permits movement. When moving or lifting a heavy load, it?s easier to use levers, and in the body it?s the exact same. All levers use 5 different parts; Lever, Fulcrum, Muscle force, Resistive force and Torque. Lever; almost always the bone Fulcrum; the pivot point of the lever in which is usually the joint. ...read more.


Third-class; most of the limbs in the human body are third-class levers. When the muscle force and resistive force act on the same side of the fulcrum, with the muscle force acting through the lever shorter than that through which the resistive force acts - e.g. adduction of the thigh. The weight of the thigh is the resistance, the hip joint is the fulcrum, and the contraction of the adductor muscle is the effort. Heat production; The ability of being able to maintain body temperature. However, when a muscle contracts this produces around 70% of body heat due to the energy produced in the muscle tissue. Blood is another essential element in temperature control; this is because during exercise, heat from the body core and working muscles is redirected to the skin when the body is overheating. When the internal heat of the body reaches too low of a level thermo receptors in the skin relay a message to the hypothalamus in the brain. ...read more.


Type 1; which is also known as slow twitch, they contract more slowly which enables you to keep going for a long time. Slow twitch fibres are good for endurance activities such as cross country, as they work for a long time without getting fatigued. Usually slow twitch fibres are red because they are rich in oxygen that provides the energy for the muscles. Type 2; more commonly known as fast twitch fibres, they contract a lot quicker but are easily fatigued. They use anaerobic metabolism to create fuel. Fast- twitch fibres can be split into two groups; Type 2a and Type 2b. Type 2a; also known as fast-oxidative-glycolytic, have a quick contraction speed they are generally used for aerobic metabolism, and are able to use either glucose or fats as a source of energy. Type 2b; also known as fast glycolytic, have a quick contraction speed and are only recruited for brief maximal efforts they are easily fatigued. They are what most people would think of as sprinters muscle fibres, and are therefore of no use for sustained performance. ...read more.

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