• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Osteoarthritis.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Victoria University Of Technology School of Human Movement, Recreation and Performance HPE 4030 Social Bases Of Health Public Health Research Assignment History, Prevalence and Causes Of Osteoarthritis Corey Lawson 3077890 Words 1771 Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis, (OA) also known as degenerative joint disease, is the most common form of arthritis, affecting 30 million or more people worldwide. OA causes some mild aches and pains but never really incapacitates people. Unfortunately, in many individuals it is more than a minor problem, and can lead to significant pain, limitation, and overall disability, particularly when it involves significant joints such as the hips, knees, or spine. There are many coping strategies to consider for those with OA. What is Arthritis? The word arthritis is derived from two Greek words. The first, athron, means joint. The second, itis, means inflammation, Literally translated then, arthritis means inflammation of a joint. (Gordon, 1993:7) Inflammation of a joint is vital in the renewing process that occurs in response to injury of living tissue. It's a positive healing process provided it ends in relatively short time and does not linger indefinitely and become chronic. It's the chronic nature of arthritic inflammation that's negative and sets in motion the chain reaction leading to arthritic symptoms and signs (such as joint pain, tenderness, warmth, swelling, and redness) and complications. (Gordon, 1993:7) OA and rheumatoid arthritis are the two most common types. ...read more.

Middle

(Phillips, 1989:8) How does Osteoarthritis affect Joints? OA affects the synovial membrane that covers the bony ends of all joints. At first it may manifest in one bone end or joint only. (Figure 1) However, it may invade other joints as the person ages. As the disease progresses, the membrane begins to wear away and the end of the affected bone is gradually exposed. Eventually the space between the bone end narrows to such an extent that often the raw bone ends rub together, causing excruciating pain on movement. (www.arthritisvic.org.au) Normally, cartilage acts as a shock absorber, providing a smooth surface between the bones. But with OA, the smooth surface becomes rough and pitted. In advanced stages, it may wear away completely. Without their normal gliding surfaces, the bones grind against one another, causing inflammation, pain and restricted movement. Bone spurs may form. (www.arthritisvic.org.au) In OA of the knee, the shape of the bone and appearance of the leg may change over the years. Many people become bow-legged or knock-kneed. And in OA of the hip, the affected leg may appear shorter. What Occurs inside the Joint? OA is defined by the changes that are seen on an X-ray of the joint with symptoms. Compared to a normal joint, the X-ray more or less shows, depending on the joint and on how long the problem has been going on: (see figure 2) ...read more.

Conclusion

A balanced routine of rest and exercise is best. What about surgery? (Taken From www.fla-ortho.com) > Arthroscopy - Arthroscopic procedures are not generally helpful for arthritis. In some cases, a "flap" of torn knee cartilage can aggravate arthritis and cause additional pain. The cartilage flap can be removed by Arthroscopy. > Partial Knee Resurfacing - An alternative to total knee replacement for people who have arthritis on either the inside or outside compartment of the knee. Partial Knee Resurfacing restores only the compartment that is damaged by arthritis. It can be an excellent option for people who have "bone on bone" arthritis. > Knee or Hip Replacement - Knee replacement or hip replacement is a very positive solution to the pain and disability of advanced OA. The rough, worn surfaces of the joint are relined with smooth-surfaced metal and plastic components. Future of Osteoarthritis Tremendous progress has been made in treatment for OA. Earlier diagnosis has led to earlier, more effective treatment, resulting in a better prognosis. Ongoing research continues to investigate the ways that joints function, as well as techniques that may decrease damage to bones and tissues and improve bone growth and repair. Finally, more attention is being given to find ways to further improve quality of life for the person with OA. It is hoped that scientists may soon discover other types of treatment that may entirely eliminate OA as a medical problem. Until then, it is necessary to develop adequate coping strategies. The Eight Categories of Arthritis (Taken From www.arthritisvic.org. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Physiology Within Sport

    blood plasma increases even more to compensate for the increased amount of red blood cells, this causes the ratio of red blood cell volume to total blood volume decrease as this can reduce the thickness of the blood and the blood becomes more efficient flowing through veins and capillaries much quicker.

  2. Identify and justify the key components of fitness.

    for twisting and turning So this in mind it is very important to make sure the muscles are stretched and are warmed up properly. Stretches should last for at least 8 seconds and for best effect the stretches should be repeated more than once.

  1. Describe the components of a balanced diet.

    Without the right amounts of vitamin D children can develop rickets which is the deformation of the legs caused when they lack calcium to strengthen the bones. In adults a lack of vitamin D in the diet can lead to osteomalacia, a progressive softening of the bones which can make them highly at risk to fracture.

  2. Lifestyle Factors

    It contributes to weight gain and if you drink too much, too often, it can lead to all sorts of health problems such as high blood pressure and liver damage. We may all overindulge from time to time, but try not to make this a regular thing.

  1. Joint Classifications

    The second of these six joints is the hinge joint. The hinge joint can be found at the elbows, knees, fingers and toes. Its range of movement is limited to flexion and extension. The hinge joints full range of movement can be seen when a 100 metre sprinter is running,

  2. Body in Motion

    Students who performed exceptionally well have excellent functioning and the system and the organs involved work effectively together. 2. Explain in detail the functions of the respiratory and circulatory systems and the different roles that they performed in order for you the complete the test.

  1. Exercise health and lifestyle

    How well the heart performs is a good indication of how healthy a person's cardiovascular. The more exercise a person does the more their cardio-vascular fitness they will gain. Regular activity helps the cardiovascular system by improving circulation. Circulation is increased because physical activity increases a person's blood volume.

  2. Personal Exercise Program

    This test depends on an athlete's motivation and the strictness of the assessor to be reliable. This test is valid as it records exactly what it is supposed to. Hand grip The aim of this test is to measure the maximum hand strength of an individual.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work