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PE Biological Definitions

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Introduction

Suppleness The definition of flexibility, suppleness and mobility is the range of movement possible round a joint and this depends on the amount of stretch allowed by the ligaments, joints, tendons and muscles. Flexibility is an important component of physical fitness for all athletes as increasing your flexibility aids performance and helps to avoid unnecessary injury. It is impossible to have the same degree of flexibility around all joints as the joint structure itself limits flexibility, for example a lot of movement is possible at the shoulder joint because it is a ball and socket joint, but movement at the hinge joint of the knee is more limited. Increasing body temperature helps to improve flexibility, which is a good reason why an athlete should always warm up. Our range of movement deteriorates as we get older, due to shortening of the connective tissue and general joint degeneration caused by wear and tear. Why should a netballer do mobility exercises? The objective of mobility training is to improve the range of stretch of the antagonistic muscles. Mobility plays an important part in the preparation of netballers by developing a range of movement to allow technical development and assisting in the prevention of injury. All athletes require a basic level of general all round mobility to allow them to benefit from other forms of training. In addition, netball players will need to develop specific mobility for those joint actions involved in the techniques of their game. ...read more.

Middle

Increased speed does not always result in an improved performance as moving too quickly could cause you to make mistakes. Speed is an important component of fitness for a netballer as it is needed when a player performs a sprint dodge. The faster you are the greater the chance of you getting free from your opponent so that you are free to receive a pass. Also if possession of the ball is lost, speed is needed to run back and mark your opponent. As a centre I use my speed at the majority of time, in order to get in front of my opponent to be in a safe position to receive a pass. Fast arm speed results in passes being thrown over a longer distance and also the faster the passes, the faster the pace of the game. Fast arm speed can also have a negative result as if a netballer has a very fast arm, they could throw the ball too quickly and therefore resulting in the ball being thrown too far out of the reach of their team member or 'over a third'; this could mean that possession is lost. Speed is influenced by the athlete's mobility, special strength, strength endurance and technique. Flexibility and a correct warm up will affect stride length and frequency (strike rate). Stride length can be improved by developing muscular strength, power, strength endurance and running technique. ...read more.

Conclusion

Players have to consistently use these skills to be able to get free from their opponents. This therefore shows that stamina is needed for netball players to perform these attacking skills continuously throughout the attacking game. For example jumping and elevating requires the leg muscles (gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, Semimembranosus, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, vastus medialis and vastus intermedius) to contract and relax repeatedly. It is also essential so that we are able to keep up with our opponents as our muscles may have to work for prolonged periods of time. Muscular endurance in the lower back and the abdominal muscles is also important when playing netball as players have to repeatedly bend down to gather low passes or rolling balls. As I play the position of centre, a high level of stamina is vital as the centre is the player who links the defence to the attack. The centre is designated to a large area on the court so a lot of movement is required. Netball consists of the players continuously passing the ball, so endurance in the biceps brachii and triceps trachii is essential which enables players to pass the ball accurately with speed and power throughout the game. A good level of stamina will ensure that fatigue will not affect your performance. Lack of stamina is highlighted in the last quarter of many matches in which a player complains of "jelly legs." This is usually accompanied by decreased performance in skills requiring muscular strength or power. ...read more.

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